Geir Kjetil Sandve

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Phone +47-22840861
Mobile phone +47-93853050
Room 4420
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Visiting address Department of Informatics Ole-Johan Dahls hus Gaustadalléen 23B 0373 Oslo
Postal address Postboks 1080 Blindern 0316 OSLO
Other affiliations Department for Informatics

I am an associate professor at the Biomedical Informatics Research Group (BMI) at the Department of informatics (IFI), University of Oslo (UiO). My current research is focused on genome analysis, and previously on motif discovery in DNA, as described in further detail below. I also have a strong interest for teaching and supervision.

Research

Research group

There are currently two postdocs and two PhD students in my research group:

  • Boris Simovsky (started 2014)
  • Ivar Grytten (starting september 2015)
  • Diana Domanska (started 2015, together with Eivind Hovig and Torbjørn Rognes)
  • Antonio (started 2014, together with Odd Stokke Gabrielsen and Ragnhild Eskeland)

I am also co-supervising several PhD students, and supervising several master students.

My experience has been that certain ways of working as a team improves the research we do, and I have written a brief overview of some routines we are applying in my group.

The Genomic HyperBrowser

My main research interest has the last years been the development of statistical and algorithmic methodology for large-scale analysis of genomic data. As part of this, I have been a main developer of The Genomic HyperBrowser, which is an open source, web-based software system for statistical analysis. Our ambition is to be a leading system for (statistical) genome analysis, in a synergy with the UCSC/Ensembl genome browsers for storing/retrieving genomic data, with Galaxy for manipulating genomic data, and with EpiExplorer for more explorative analysis of genomic data.

The Genomic HyperBrowser is the result of a tight collaboration between computer scientists, statististicians and biologists in Oslo, Norway. I have from the start been working very closely together with fellow informaticians Sveinung Gundersen and Morten Johansen (and later also Vegard Nygaard and Kai Trengereid), with statistiticans Arnoldo Frigessi, Ingrid Glad, Lars Holden, Marit Holden, Knut Liestøl and Egil Ferkingstad, and with biologists Eivind Hovig, Halfdan Rydbeck, Eivind Tøstesen and Trevor Clancy.

After two years of intense methodology and software development, we published a paper on the HyperBrowser late 2010. With the main infrastructure for genome analysis robustly in place, we are now in a phase where we can effectively build on this base in new directions. We recently published a paper on the disease regulome, a global map of over- and under-representation of 450 transcription factors in 1000 diseases. Also, we recently published a paper on Monte Carlo estimation of p-values in multiple testing settings, and a paper where we distinguish elemental genomic track types and propose a new format for genomic data.

A full list of publications is given at the bottom of the page.

Motif discovery in DNA

During my PhD I cooperated closely with Finn Drabløs, as well as Osman Abul, Kjetil Klepper, Jostein Johansen, Vegard Walseng, Øystein Bø Syrstad, Lars Eidsheim and Magnus Nedland on different projects. I also discussed a lot of interesting issues with Arne Halaas, Rolv Seehuus and Magnus Lie, though we never wrote any articles together.

I wrote a survey of motif discovery in DNA together with Finn Drabløs, where we described a formal mathematical model of the motif discovery process, and placed the current literature (around 100 methods) according to this model. Although this allowed us to precisely place the existing methods, we realized it was still very difficult to say anything about which methods performed best. We thus developed two new benchmarks. First, I developed a set of benchmarks for the discovery of single motifs where we distinguished between modelling motifs as sensitively as possible and finding the best instances according to standard motif models. Second, I contributed to a benchmark for the discovery of cis-regulatory modules, which we constructed based on co-occurring binding sites as found in the TRANSFAC database.

I developed a discretized method Compo and contributed to a probabilistic method Baycis for the discovery of cis-regulatory modules in DNA (in addition to an early article on a method GCMD for composite motif discovery in proteins). In addition to this, I contributed to articles on iterated motif discovery in setting with available gene expression data, on controlling the false discovery rate in motif discovery settings, and on a two-step single motif discovery method. The Compo method was later applied for motif discovery in an allergy-setting.

Side projects

I have done some statistical analysis of DNA melting (denaturation). Most of this is not published, but I contributed to an article on segmenting DNA based on melting properties. While working on motif discovery, I did some work related to FPGA and specialized hardware (though I didn't myself fight with the gritty details), which resultet in a publication on hardware-accelerated motif discovery.
 

Future work

We currently have more ideas than we can handle on how to take our work on the HyperBrowser further, and are very happy to include collaborators. We would like to pursue further projects along the following general directions (and more):

  • One main direction is to allow asking questions not only in the perspective of the genome as a line, but also with DNA as a three-dimensional structure (for instance questions related to spatial proximity).
  • A second main direction is to complement the currently well-developed statistical inference, with similarly sophisticated envisioning of genomic information (study how advanced processing can be used to present genomic data in a way that allows the human eye to make most sense of the data).
  • A third main direction is to build specialized expert/decision systems for particul applications on top of the generic functionality. Examples of such systems are the GREAT and Endavour systems from other labs, and to a certain degree also our disease regulome project. We are currently working with analytical functionality for genome variation data, such as GWAS data.

 

Supervision

I am currently offering several masters tasks.

Current and previous master students

I am main supervisor for master students Johannes Akse and Johanne Håøy Horn.

I have previously been main supervisor for 19 master students, 7 at NTNU and 12 at UiO:

Henrik Skifjeld
Brynjar Rongved
Fredrik Haaland: Using machine learning to make sense of our genome
Knut  Dagestad Rand: Learning game theory from the immune system
Kristoffer Waløen: The bioinformatics of personal genomes
Tobias Gulbrandsen Waaler: Unfolding your DNA
Torkil Vederhus: Of mice and men 2
Anders Ramsvik Bragstad: Dynamic benchmarking - a new approach to benchmarking in bioinformatics
Eirik Mistereggen: "Compression of Short Read data sets"
Øyvind Øvergaard: "Controlling overhead in large Python programs"
Hiep Luong Nguyen: "A flexible clustering system for genome annotation tracks"
Eivind Gard Lund: "An Extensible Framework for Comparative Analysis of Annotations"
Jonathan Lunde Lillesæter: "Retroactively Parallelizing a Large Python System"
Kai Trengereid: "Development of a motif discovery tool"
Tarjei S Hveem: "Improving expressibility of simple motifs"
Vetle Valebjørg: "Discovery of approximate composite motifs in biological sequences"
Øystein Lekang: "Flexible Discovery of Modules with Distance Constraints"
Øyvind Bø Syrstad and Lars Eidsheim: "Maskinvare-aksellerert MEME"
Lars Krutådal: "Weighted Pattern Matching with PWMs on FPGAs"
Vegard Walseng: "Learning pattern models from examples"

Lecturing

I have been responsible for a course in computer science for teachers , and a previous course in bioinformatics. I have also given lectures in two courses in algorithms (TDT4120 and a previous course), as well as several courses in bioinformatics (TDT4287, INF4350, MBV3070). I have previously been a program committe member for a conference on IT and education (NKUL).

Tags: genome analysis, master tasks, bioinformatics

Publications

  • Børnich, Claus; Grytten, Ivar; Hovig, Johannes Eivind; Paulsen, Jonas; Cech, Martin & Sandve, Geir Kjetil (2016). Galaxy Portal: Interacting with the galaxy platform through mobile devices. Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1367-4803.  32(11), s 1743- 1745 . doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btw042
  • Bengtsen, Mads; Klepper, Kjetil; Gundersen, Sveinung; Cuervo Torre, Ignacio; Drabløs, Finn; Hovig, Johannes Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Gabrielsen, Odd Stokke & Eskeland, Ragnhild (2015). c-Myb Binding Sites in Haematopoietic Chromatin Landscapes. PLoS ONE.  ISSN 1932-6203.  10(7) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133280
  • Ferkingstad, Egil; Holden, Lars & Sandve, Geir Kjetil F. (2015). Monte Carlo Null Models for Genomic Data . Statistical Science.  ISSN 0883-4237.  30(1), s 59- 71 . doi: 10.1214/14-STS484
  • Kraus, Hanne Irene; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Schmitz, Martina; Dürst, Matthias & Hovig, Johannes Eivind (2015). Transcriptionally active regions are the preferred targets for chromosomal HPV integration in cervical carcinogenesis. PLoS ONE.  ISSN 1932-6203.  10(3) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119566
  • Mora Ortiz, Antonio Carlos; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Gabrielsen, Odd Stokke & Eskeland, Ragnhild (2015). In the loop: promoter-enhancer interactions and bioinformatics . Briefings in Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1467-5463. . doi: 10.1093/bib/bbv097
  • Ricigliano, Vito A. G.; Handel, Adam E; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Annibali, Viviana; Ristori, Giovanni; Mechelli, Rosella; Cader, M.Zameel & Salvetti, Marco (2015). EBNA2 binds to genomic intervals associated with multiple sclerosis and overlaps with vitamin D receptor occupancy. PLoS ONE.  ISSN 1932-6203.  10(4) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119605
  • Rydbeck, Halfdan; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Ferkingstad, Egil; Simovski, Boris; Rye, Morten Beck & Hovig, Johannes Eivind (2015). ClusTrack: Feature extraction and similarity measures for clustering of genome-wide data sets. PLoS ONE.  ISSN 1932-6203.  10(4) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123261
  • Disanto, Giulio; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Ricigliano, Vito AG; Pakpoor, Julia; Berlanga-Taylor, Antonio; Handel, Adam E; Kuhle, Jens; Holden, Lars; Watson, Corey T; Giovannoni, Gavin; Handunnetthi, Lahiru & Ramagopalan, Sreeram V (2014). DNase hypersensitive sites and association with multiple sclerosisxs. Human Molecular Genetics.  ISSN 0964-6906.  23(4), s 942- 948 . doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt489
  • Molyneux, Sam; Waterhouse, PD; Shelton, Dawne; Shao, Yang W; Watling, Christopher M; Tang, Qing-Lian; Harris, Isaac S; Dickson, Brendan C; Tharmapalan, Pirashaanthy; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Bailey, Swneke D; Berman, Hal; Wunder, Jay S; Iszvak, Zsuzsanna; Lupien, Mathieu; Mak, Tak W & Khokha, Rama (2014). Human somatic cell mutagenesis creates genetically tractable sarcomas. Nature Genetics.  ISSN 1061-4036.  46(9), s 964- 972 . doi: 10.1038/ng.3065
  • Paulsen, Jonas; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Gundersen, Sveinung; Lien, Tonje Gulbrandsen; Trengereid, Kai & Hovig, Johannes Eivind (2014). HiBrowse: Multi-purpose statistical analysis of genome-wide chromatin 3D organization. Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1367-4803.  30(11), s 1620- 1622 . doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu082
  • Rye, Morten Beck; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Daub, Carsten O; Kawaji, H; Carninci, P; Forrest, A & Drabløs, Finn (2014). Chromatin states reveal functional associations for globally defined transcription start sites in four human cell lines. BMC Genomics.  ISSN 1471-2164.  15(1) . doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-120
  • Handel, Adam E; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Disanto, Giulio; Berlanga-Taylor, Antonio; Gallone, Anna; Hanwell, Heather EC; Drabløs, Finn; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ebers, Georg C & Ramagopalan, Sreeram V (2013). Vitamin D receptor ChIP-seq in primary CD4+ cells: relationship to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and autoimmune disease. BMC Medicine.  ISSN 1741-7015.  11(163) . doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-163
  • Handel, Adam E; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Disanto, Giulio; Handunnetthi, Lahiru; Giovannoni, Gavin & Ramagopalan, Sreeram V (2013). Integrating multiple oestrogen receptor alpha ChIP studies: overlap with disease susceptibility regions, DNase I hypersensitivity peaks and gene expression. BMC Medical Genomics.  ISSN 1755-8794.  6:45 . doi: 10.1186/1755-8794-6-45
  • Paulsen, Jonas; Lien, Tonje Gulbrandsen; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Holden, Lars; Borgan, Ørnulf; Glad, Ingrid Kristine & Hovig, Johannes Eivind (2013). Handling realistic assumptions in hypothesis testing of 3D co-localization of genomic elements. Nucleic Acids Research.  ISSN 0305-1048.  41(10), s 5164- 5174 . doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt227
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Gundersen, Sveinung; Johansen, Morten; Glad, Ingrid Kristine; Gunathasan, Krishanthi; Holden, Lars; Holden, Marit; Liestøl, Knut; Nygård, Ståle; Nygaard, Vegard; Paulsen, Jonas; Rydbeck, Halfdan; Trengereid, Kai; Clancy, Trevor; Drabløs, Finn; Ferkingstad, Egil; Kalaš, Matúš; Lien, Tonje Gulbrandsen; Rye, Morten Beck; Frigessi, Arnoldo & Hovig, Johannes Eivind (2013). The Genomic HyperBrowser: an analysis web server for genome-scale data. Nucleic Acids Research.  ISSN 0305-1048.  41(W1), s W133- W141 . doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt342
  • Bruhn, Sören; Barrenäs, Fredrik; Mobini, R; Andersson, B; Chavali, S.; Egan, B. S.; Hovig, Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Langston, M. A.; Rogers, Gary; Wang, H. & Benson, Mikael (2012). Increased expression of IRF4 and ETS1 in CD4(+) cells from patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  ISSN 0105-4538.  67(1), s 33- 40 . doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02707.x
  • Disanto, Giulio; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Berlanga-Taylor, Antonio; Morahan, Julia; Dobson, Ruth; Giovannoni, Gavin & Ramagopalan, Sreeram V (2012). Genomic Regions Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Are Active in B Cells. PLoS ONE.  ISSN 1932-6203.  7(3) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032281
  • Disanto, Giulio; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Berlanga-Taylor, Antonio; Ragnedda, Giammario; Morahan, Julia; Watson, Corey T; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ebers, Georg C & Ramagopalan, Sreeram V (2012). Vitamin D receptor binding, chromatin states and association with multiple sclerosis. Human Molecular Genetics.  ISSN 0964-6906.  21(16), s 3575- 3586 . doi: 10.1093/hmg/dds189
  • Watson, Corey T; Disanto, Giulio; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Breden, Felix; Giovannoni, Gavin & Ramagopalan, Sreeram V (2012). Age-Associated Hyper-Methylated Regions in the Human Brain Overlap with Bivalent Chromatin Domains. PLoS ONE.  ISSN 1932-6203.  7(9) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043840
  • Gundersen, Sveinung; Kalaš, Matúš; Abul, Osman; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Hovig, Eivind & Sandve, Geir Kjetil (2011). Identifying elemental genomic track types and representing them uniformly . BMC Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1471-2105.  12 . doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-494
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil Ferkingstad; Ferkingstad, Egil & Nygård, Ståle (2011). Sequential Monte Carlo multiple testing. Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1367-4803.  27(23), s 3235- 3241 . doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr568
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Gundersen, Sveinung; Rydbeck, Halfdan; Glad, Ingrid Kristine; Holden, Lars; Holden, Marit; Liestøl, Knut; Clancy, Trevor; Drabløs, Finn; Ferkingstad, Egil; Johansen, Morten; Nygaard, Vegard; Tøstesen, Eivind; Frigessi, Arnoldo & Hovig, Eivind (2011). The differential disease regulome. BMC Genomics.  ISSN 1471-2164.  12, s 353 . doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-353
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Gundersen, Sveinung; Rydbeck, Halfdan; Glad, Ingrid Kristine; Holden, Lars; Holden, Marit; Liestøl, Knut; Clancy, Trevor; Ferkingstad, Egil; Johansen, Morten; Nygaard, Vegard; Tøstesen, Eivind; Frigessi, Arnoldo & Hovig, Eivind (2010). The Genomic HyperBrowser: inferential genomics at the sequence level . Genome Biology.  ISSN 1465-6906.  11(12) . doi: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-12-r121
  • Tøstesen, Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Liu, Fang & Hovig, Eivind (2009). Segmentation of DNA sequences into twostate regions and melting fork regions . Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.  ISSN 0953-8984.  21(3) . doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/21/3/034109
  • Abul, Osman; Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2008). TScan: A two-step de novo motif discovery method. Series on Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology.  ISSN 1751-6404.  8, s 19
  • Klepper, Kjetil; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Abul, Osman; Johansen, Jostein & Drabløs, Finn (2008). Assessment of composite motif discovery methods. BMC Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1471-2105.  9(123) . doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-123
  • Lin, Tien-ho; Ray, Pradipta; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Uguroglu, Selen & Xing, Eric P. (2008). BayCis: A Bayesian Hierarchical HMM for Cis-Regulatory Module Decoding in Metazoan Genomes. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.  ISSN 0302-9743.  4955, s 66- 81 . doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-78839-3_7
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Abul, Osman & Drabløs, Finn (2008). Compo: composite motif discovery using discrete models . BMC Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1471-2105.  9(527) . doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-527
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Abul, Osman & Drabløs, Finn (2008). Compo: composite motif discovery using discrete models. BMC Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1471-2105.  9, s 527 . doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-527
  • Abul, Osman; Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2007). False Discovery Rates in Identifying Functional DNA Motifs, In Jack Y. Yang (ed.),  Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering.  IEEE.  ISBN 978-1-4244-1509-0.  False Discovery Rates in Identifying Functional DNA Motifs.  s 387 - 394
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Abul, Osman; Walseng, Vegard & Drabløs, Finn (2007). Improved benchmarks for computational motif discovery. BMC Bioinformatics.  ISSN 1471-2105.  8(193) . doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-193
  • Abul, Osman; Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2006). A Methodology for Motif Discovery Employing Iterated Cluster Re-assignment. Series on Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology.  ISSN 1751-6404.  4, s 257- 268
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2006). A survey of motif discovery methods in an integrated framework. Biology Direct.  ISSN 1745-6150.  1 . doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-1-11
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Nedland, Magnar; Bø Syrstad, Øyvind; Eidsheim, Lars Andreas; Abul, Osman & Drabløs, Finn (2006). Accelerating Motif Discovery: Motif Matching on Parallel Hardware. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.  ISSN 0302-9743.  4175, s 197- 206
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2005). Generalized Composite Motif Discovery. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.  ISSN 0302-9743.  3683, s 763 . doi: 10.1007/11553939

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  • Simovski, Boris; Drabløs, Finn Sverre; Gundersen, Sveinung; Johansen, Morten; Domanska, Diana Ewa; Azab, Abdulrahman; Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Hovig, Johannes Eivind (2016). The Genomic HyperBrowser.
  • Ferkingstad, Egil; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F. & Holden, Lars (2015). Monte Carlo null models for genomic data.
  • Rye, Morten Beck; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Daub, Carsten O; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair & Drabløs, Finn (2014). Chromatin data integrated with a human reference atlas of experimentally defined promoters reveal repressed promoters located in active chromatin.
  • Rye, Morten Beck; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Daub, Carsten O; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair & Drabløs, Finn (2014). Repressed promoters in active chromatin.
  • Tørresen, Ole Kristian; Jentoft, Sissel; Star, Bastiaan; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Skage, Morten; Hansen, Marianne Helén Selander; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd & Nederbragt, Alexander Johan (2014). A new, high quality reference genome assembly for Atlantic cod.
  • Tørresen, Ole Kristian; Walenz, Brian; Grove, Harald; Lien, Sigbjørn; Knight, James; Star, Bastiaan; Lagesen, Karin; Sandve, Geir Kjetil F.; Skage, Morten; Hansen, Marianne Helén Selander; Klunderud, Ave Tooming; Miller, Jason Rafe; Jentoft, Sissel; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd & Nederbragt, Alexander Johan (2014). A new, high quality reference genome assembly for Atlantic cod.
  • Ferkingstad, Egil; Holden, Lars & Sandve, Geir Kjetil (2013). Monte Carlo null models for genomic data.
  • Ferkingstad, Egil; Holden, Lars & Sandve, Geir Kjetil (2013). Monte Carlo null models in ecology .
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James & Hovig, Johannes Eivind (2013). Ten Simple Rules for Reproducible Computational Research. PloS Computational Biology.  ISSN 1553-734X.  9(10) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003285
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil (2008). Potentials and limitations of motif-based binding site prediction in DNA.
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Abul, Osman; Walseng, Vegard & Drabløs, Finn (2007). Improved benchmarks for computational motif discovery.
  • Abul, Osman; Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2006). A Methodology for Motif Discovery Employing Iterated Cluster Re-assignment.
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil (2006). Accelerating Motif Discovery: Motif Matching on Parallel Hardware.
  • Abul, Osman; Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2006). False discovery rates in identifying functional DNA motifs.
  • Abul, Osman; Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2006). TScan: A two-step de novo motif discovery method.
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Nedland, Magnar; Bø Syrstad, Øyvind; Eidsheim, Lars Andreas; Abul, Osman & Drabløs, Finn (2006). Accelerating motif discovery: motif matching on parallel hardware.
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Stenersen, Kristoffer; Walseng, Vegard; Lekang, Øystein; Klepper, Kjetil; Abul, Osman; Hveem, Tarjei S; Bratlie, Marit Skyrud & Drabløs, Finn (2006). An integrated approach to motif discovery in DNA sequences.
  • Sandve, Geir Kjetil & Drabløs, Finn (2005). Generalized Composite Motif Discovery.

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Published Nov. 4, 2010 2:16 PM - Last modified Mar. 3, 2016 10:25 AM