Nettsider med emneord «climate change»
Seabirds in Polar Regions are experiencing increasing environmental stress due to climate change and pollution. They also serve as indicator species for changes in the environment. But what do they tell us about how seabird populations are affected by contaminants and climate, and is the situation the same in Antarctica as in the Arctic?
The aim of this thesis is to investigate possibilities for creating digital replicas of urban landscapes and regional characteristics, cities' infrastructure elements (e.g., homes, properties, streets, etc.) to simulate what-if scenarios that show the impact of climate change such as flooding in cities and how they may be managed. Such simulations can be used to determine flooding risks for existing conditions and to evaluate proposed mitigation strategies. The resulting flood resilience model can be used for analysis, simulation, visualization, planning and communication, as well as a better assessment of the socio-economic impact of cities' projects. As part of this thesis, various aspects related to relevant historical and actual data, AI models, and modern data visualization techniques will be investigated.
In the Boreal-Arctic seas, the two most abundant gadoid fish are the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and the haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both tend to respond to climate warming by an abundance increase and a change of distribution. Are these changes affecting how they are interacting? Statistical analysis using a state-space threshold model of acoustic and trawl survey data on cod and haddock abundance indicates that the interaction is changing with sea temperature: the cod negatively affecting the haddock when sea temperature is over 4 °C.
We studied the effect of changes in sea ice cover, sea temperature, and biomass of prey or predator on the length of polar cod. Our results show a significant negative effect of sea ice cover on length of all age groups of polar cod: Polar cod grow faster when there is less sea ice.
Climate warming is changing the timing of among others the reproduction for plankton or fish. Predators depend on an abundant prey supply to feed their young and insure that they survive. When the timing of the prey and the predator are not in synchrony the predator young cannot feed and are dying: there is a mismatch.
Ozone on the ground level causes stress in natural vegetation. When the ozone level increases at the same time as the climate changes, vegetation is being hit by a double punch. This project seeks to find out how this affects the yield and growth.
A recently paper published in PNAS, members of the CEES Marine Group explore potential climate effects on Calanus finmarchicus, a key zooplankton species in the North Atlantic. The paper shows how the combination of shallow mixed-layer-depth and increased wind apparently increases chlorophyll biomass in spring, and in turn C. finmarchicus biomass in summer. These findings strongly suggest bottom-up effects of food availability on zooplankton, and highlight the need to consider climate effects “beyond temperature” when projecting zooplankton dynamics under climate change.
Marine phytoplankton contribute nearly 50% to global primary production, support zooplankton production and play a vital role in regulating Carbon sequestration. Phytoplankton productivity fluctuations are caused by various direct and indirect effects of temperature, the balance of which show large-scale geographical patterns.
Penguins are highly visible species for the public. Their life has been portrayed in many movies. Unfortunately they are also species impacted by climate change. In a recent publication a team led by Charles Bost used long-term data to relate the large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere to the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of the king penguin.
This project explores how climate change and other long-term environmental changes can influence the transport, uptake and food web transfer of mercury in boreal lakes.
This project aims to understand the dynamics of the plant root microbiome in response to elevated temperatures and altered annual precipitation patterns.
In this study we assessed the chances of recovery of the Baltic Sea cod stock and conclude that it will never come back to the status it had more than three decades ago and that the economic losses associated to this new baseline amount to 120 million euros per year.
Scientists in geodynamics and meteorology from UiO, in collaboration with researchers in geosciences from Bergen, Tromsø and UNIS, received 19.5 million kroner from the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) for a new Research School on “Changing climates in the coupled earth system” (CHESS).
Much of our present knowledge on the ecology and behaviour of animals is derived from longitudinal studies of individuals using long-term datasets. The collection of such datasets requires the ability to identify individuals repeatedly over time, i.e. by individual markings. Here comes the problems for Penguins.