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Many marine fishes experience tremendous mortality during their first months of life. Understanding the causes of this mortality and why it varies from year to year has challenged fisheries ecologists for more than a century. Part of the difficulty comes from the fact that many fishes have free-floating larvae. It is therefore difficult to follow a group of fish larvae over time in the field and investigate which factors cause mortality.
The year 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of the Norwegian oceanographer and biologist Johan Hjort’s ground-breaking work, Fluctuations in the great fisheries of northern Europe, viewed in the light of biological research. This anniversary was commemorated with a special issue of ICES Journal of Marine Science.
Understanding the drivers that determine the productivity of marine ecosystems is an important issue. Climate and exploitation interact in their effects, such that climate alterations may cause failure in a fishery management scheme while fisheries may disrupt the ability of a population to withstand, or adjust to, climate changes.
Factors influencing recruitment, retention and gender equity in science, technology and mathematics higher education