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Academic Interests

I am broadly interested in the reheating and reionization of the intergalactic medium, the formation of the first stars and black holes, and the galaxy-intergalactic medium connection. I am a theorist who specializes in modeling radiative processes and radiative transfer, to improve the general connection between theory and multifrequency observations. I work at the interface of models and data, and I have established collaborations with both theorists and observers.

More information can be found on my personal site



Higher education and employment history

PhD Columbia University (2005)

School of Physics, University of Melbourne 2005-2007

ITC Fellow, Harvard University 2007-2010

Senior Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, 2010-2013


Gauss-Professorship (2012-2013) awarded by the Academy of Sciences at the University of Gottingen, Germany




Tags: Japan, Global South, Radiative Transfer Modelling, Observations, Cosmology, Simulations, Astronomy and Astrophysics, USA, India, Computational Astrophysics, Galaxies


Selected Publications. For a complete list, see


  • “3-cm Fine Structure Masers: A Unique Signature of Supermassive Black Hole Formation via Direct Collapse in the Early Universe”, Dijkstra, M., Sethi, S., Loeb, A., 2016, ApJ, 820, 10D

  • “On the contribution of fluorescence to Ly$α$ halos (LAHs) around star forming galaxies”, Mas-Ribas, L., Dijkstra, M., 2016, ApJ, in press

  • “ The Lyman Alpha Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage”, Martin, C., Dijkstra, M., Henry, A., Soto, K., Danforth, C., Wong, J., 2015, ApJ, 803, 6M

  • A systematic study of Lyman-Alpha transfer through outflowing shells: Model parameter estimation”, Gronke, M., Bull, P., Dijkstra, M., 2015, ApJ, in press

  • “The impact of gas bulk rotation on the lyman-alpha line”, Garavito-Camargo, J.N., Forero-Romero, J.E., Dijkstra, M., 2014, ApJ, in press

  • “Lyα Emitting Galaxies as a Probe of Reionization”, Dijkstra, M., 2014, Review Article, PASA, in press

  • Constraints on the Redshift Evolution of the L_X-SFR Relation from the Cosmic X-Ray Backgrounds”, Dijkstra, M., Gilfanov, M., Loeb A., Sunyaev, R., 2012, MNRAS, 421, 213D

  • Line Transfer through Large Scale, Clumpy Outflows: Lyman Alpha Absorption and Halos around Star Forming Galaxies”,  Dijkstra, M., Kramer, R. H., 2012, MNRAS, 424, 1672D

  • Non-gravitational contributions to the clustering of Lyα selected galaxies: implications for cosmological surveys”, Wyithe, J.S.B., Dijkstra, M., 2011, MNRAS, 415, 3929W

  • Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe”, Mirabel, I.F., Dijkstra, M., Laurent, P., Loeb, A., Pritchard, J.R., 2011, A&A, 528A, 149M

  • Lyman-alpha Cooling Emission from Galaxy Formation”, Faucher-Giguere, C.A., Keres, D., Dijkstra, M., Hernquist, L., Zaldarriaga, M. 2010, ApJ, 725, 633F

  • Lyman Alpha Blobs as an Observational Signature of Cold Accretion Streams into Galaxies”, Dijkstra, M., Loeb, A., 2009, MNRAS, 400, 1109D

  • Fluctuations in the High-Redshift Lyman-Werner Background: Close Halo Pairs as the Origin of Supermassive Black Holes”, Dijkstra, M., Haiman, Z., Mesinger, A., Wyithe, J.S.B, 2008, MNRAS, 391, 1961D

  • The polarization of scattered Lyman Alpha radiation around high-redshift galaxies'', Dijkstra, M., Loeb, A. 2008, MNRAS, 386, 492D

  • The impact of The IGM on high-redshift Lyman Alpha emission lines”, Dijkstra, M., Lidz, A., Wyithe, J.S.B., 2007, MNRAS, 377, 1175D

  • Lyman Alpha Radiation from Collapsing Protogalaxies. I. Characteristics of the Emergent Spectrum”, Dijkstra, M., Haiman, Z., Spaans, M., 2006, ApJ, 649, 14D

  • Photoionization Feedback in Low-Mass Galaxies at High Redshift”, Dijkstra, M., Haiman, Z., Rees, M.J., Weinberg, D.H., 2004, ApJ, 601, 666D
  • Eide, Marius Berge; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Dijkstra, Mark & Hayes, Matthew (2018). Unlocking the Full Potential of Extragalactic Lyα through Its Polarization Properties. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  856(2) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aab5b7 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Forero-Romero, J. E.; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Remolina-Gutiérrez, Maria Camila; Gravito-Camargo, Nicolás & Dijkstra, Mark (2018). Modelling the gas kinematics of an atypical Ly α emitting compact dwarf galaxy. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  474(1), s 12- 19 . doi: 10.1093/MNRAS/STX2699 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Kakiichi, Koki & Dijkstra, Mark (2018). A new model framework for circumgalactic Ly α radiative transfer constrained by galaxy-Ly α forest clustering. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  480(4), s 5140- 5159 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/sty2214 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Mason, Charlotte A.; Treu, Tommaso; De Barros, Stephane; Dijkstra, Mark; Fontana, Adriano; Mesinger, Andrei; Pentericci, Laura; Trenti, Michele & Vanzella, Eros (2018). Beacons into the Cosmic Dark Ages: Boosted Transmission of Lyα from UV Bright Galaxies at z ≳ 7. Astrophysical Journal Letters.  ISSN 2041-8205.  857(2) . doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/aabbab Full text in Research Archive.
  • Mason, Charlotte A.; Treu, Tommaso; Dijkstra, Mark; Mesinger, Andrei; Trenti, Michele; Pentericci, Laura; De Barros, Stephane & Vanzella, Eros (2018). The Universe Is Reionizing at z ~ 7: Bayesian Inference of the IGM Neutral Fraction Using Lyα Emission from Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  856(1) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aab0a7 Full text in Research Archive.
  • McGreer, Ian D; Clément, Benjamin; Mainali, Ramesh; Stark, Daniel P.; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Dijkstra, Mark; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; Frye, Brenda; Jiang, Linhua; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Limousin, Marceau & Walth, Gregory (2018). A bright-lensed galaxy at z = 5.4 with strong Ly α emission. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  479(1), s 435- 453 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/sty1411 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Smith, Brent M.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K.; MacKenty, John W.; O'Connell, Robert W. & Silk, Joseph I. (2018). Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z ~ 2.3–4.1. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  853(2) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaa3dc Full text in Research Archive.
  • Windhorst, Rogier A.; Timmes, F.X.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Andrews, Stephen K.; Coe, Daniel; Diego, Jose M.; Dijkstra, Mark; Driver, Simon P.; Kelly, Patrick L. & Kim, Duho (2018). On the Observability of Individual Population III Stars and Their Stellar-mass Black Hole Accretion Disks through Cluster Caustic Transits. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series.  ISSN 0067-0049.  234(2) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaa760 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Bradač, Maruša; Garcia-Appadoo, Diego; Huang, Kuang-Han; Vallini, Livia; Finney, Emily Quinn; Hoag, Austin; Lemaux, Brian C.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Treu, Tommaso; Carilli, Chris; Dijkstra, Mark; Ferrara, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Jones, Tucker; Ryan, Russell; Wagg, Jeff & Gonzalez, Anthony H. (2017). ALMA [C II] 158 μm detection of a redshift 7 lensed galaxy behind RX J1347.1-1145. Astrophysical Journal Letters.  ISSN 2041-8205.  836:L2, s 1- 5 . doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/836/1/L2 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Gronke, Max Balthasar; Dijkstra, Mark; McCourt, Michael & Peng Oh, S. (2017). Resonant line transfer in a fog: Using Lyman-alpha to probe tiny structures in atomic gas. Astronomy and Astrophysics.  ISSN 0004-6361.  607 . doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201731013 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Johnson, Jarrett L. & Dijkstra, Mark (2017). Enhanced direct collapse due to Lyman α feedback. Astronomy and Astrophysics.  ISSN 0004-6361.  601 . doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201630010 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Karman, W.; Caputi, K.; Caminha, G. B.; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Vanzella, E.; Coe, D.; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, A.; McLeod, D.; Mercurio, A. & Nonino, M. (2017). MUSE integral-field spectroscopy towards the Frontier Fields cluster Abell S1063: II. Properties of low luminosity Lyman α emitters at z > 3. Astronomy and Astrophysics.  ISSN 0004-6361.  599 . doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629055 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Mas Ribas, Lluis; Dijkstra, Mark; Hennawi, J. F.; Trenti, Michele; Momose, Rieko & Ouchi, Masami (2017). Small-scale Intensity Mapping: Extended Lyα, Hα, and Continuum Emission as a Probe of Halo Star Formation in High-redshift Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  841(1) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa704e Full text in Research Archive.
  • Mas Ribas, Lluis; Hennawi, J. F.; Dijkstra, Mark; Davies, Frederick B.; Stern, Jonathan & Rix, Hans-Walter (2017). Small-scale Intensity Mapping: Extended Halos as a Probe of the Ionizing Escape Fraction and Faint Galaxy Populations during Reionization. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  846(1) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa8328 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Vanzella, E.; Balestra, I.; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Karman, W.; Caminha, G. B.; Dijkstra, Mark; Rosati, P.; De Barros, S.; Caputi, K.; Grillo, C.; Tozzi, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Mercurio, A. & Gilli, R. (2017). Illuminating gas inflows/outflows in the MUSE deepest fields: Lyα nebulae around forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.3. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  465(4), s 3803- 3816 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw2442 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Vanzella, E.; Castellano, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Mercurio, A.; Caminha, G. B.; Cupani, G.; Calura, F.; Christensen, L.; Merlin, E.; Rosati, P.; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Dijkstra, Mark; Mignoli, M.; Gilli, R.; De Barros, S.; Caputi, K.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Bergamini, P. & Tozzi, P. (2017). Magnifying the Early Episodes of Star Formation: Super Star Clusters at Cosmological Distances. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  842(1) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa74ae Full text in Research Archive.
  • Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Rhoads, James E.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Dijkstra, Mark; Tilvi, V. & Wang, Junxian (2017). Lyα Profile, Dust, and Prediction of Lyα Escape Fraction in Green Pea Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  844(2) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa7d4d Full text in Research Archive.
  • Beck, Melanie; Scarlata, Claudia; Hayes, Matthew; Dijkstra, Mark & Jones, Terry J. (2016). Spectropolarimetry confirms central powering in a Lyα nebula at z = 3.09. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  818(2) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/818/2/138
  • Chung, Andrew S.; Dijkstra, Mark; Ciardi, Benedetta & Gronke, Max Balthasar (2016). Blue wings and bumps via Fermi-like acceleration of Ly α photons across shocks. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  455(1), s 884- 891 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv2340
  • Dijkstra, Mark (2016). Constraining Reionization with Lyα Emitting Galaxies. Astrophysics and Space Science Library.  ISSN 0067-0057.  423, s 145- 161 . doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-21957-8_5
  • Dijkstra, Mark; Gronke, Max Balthasar & Sobral, David (2016). Lyα Signatures from Direct Collapse Black Holes. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  823(2) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/823/2/74
  • Dijkstra, Mark; Gronke, Max Balthasar & Venkatesan, Aparna (2016). The Lyα-LyC connection: evidence for an enhanced contribution of UV-faint galaxies to cosmic reionization. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  828(2) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/828/2/71 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Dijkstra, Mark; Sethi, Shiv & Loeb, Abraham (2016). 3-cm FINE STRUCTURE MASERS: A UNIQUE SIGNATURE of SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FORMATION VIA DIRECT COLLAPSE in the EARLY UNIVERSE. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  820(1) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/10
  • Geach, J. E.; Narayanan, D.; Matsuda, Y.; Hayes, M.; Mas Ribas, Lluis; Dijkstra, Mark; Steidel, C. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Feldmann, R.; Avison, A.; Agertz, O.; Ao, Y.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Kubo, M.; Michalowski, M. J.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, D. J. B.; Spaans, M.; Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Taniguchi, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Verma, A. & Yamada, T. (2016). ALMA Observations of Lyα Blob 1: Halo Substructure Illuminated from Within. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  832(1) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/832/1/37
  • Gronke, Max Balthasar & Dijkstra, Mark (2016). Lyman-alpha spectra from multiphase outflows, and their connection to shell models. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  826(1) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/826/1/14
  • Gronke, Max Balthasar; Dijkstra, Mark; McCourt, Michael & Oh, S. Peng (2016). From Mirrors to Windows: Lyman-alpha Radiative Transfer in a Very Clumpy Medium. Astrophysical Journal Letters.  ISSN 2041-8205.  833(2) . doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/833/2/L26
  • Huang, Kuang-Han; Lemaux, Brian C.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Hoag, Austin; Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Dijkstra, Mark; Fontana, Adriano; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matthew; Mason, Charlotte; Morishita, Takahiro; Pentericci, Laura; Ryan, Russell E.; Trenti, Michele & Wang, Xin (2016). Detection of Lyman-alpha Emission from a Triply Imaged z = 6.85 Galaxy behind MACS J2129.4-0741. Astrophysical Journal Letters.  ISSN 2041-8205.  823(1) . doi: 10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L14
  • Kakiichi, Koki; Dijkstra, Mark; Ciardi, Benedetta & Graziani, Luca (2016). Lyα-emitting galaxies as a probe of reionization: large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  463(4), s 4019- 4040 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw2193
  • Mas Ribas, Lluis & Dijkstra, Mark (2016). ON the CONTRIBUTION of FLUORESCENCE to LYα HALOS AROUND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  822(2) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/822/2/84
  • Mas Ribas, Lluis; Dijkstra, Mark & Forero-Romero, J. E. (2016). Boosting Lyα and He II λ1640 Line Fluxes from Population III Galaxies: Stochastic IMF Sampling and Departures from Case-B. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  833(1) . doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/833/1/65
  • Schmidt, Kasper B.; Treu, Tomasso; Bradač, Maruša; Vulcani, Benedetta; Huang, Kuanghan; Hoag, Austin; Maseda, Michael V.; Guaita, Lucia; Pentericci, Laura; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Dijkstra, Mark; Dressler, Alan M.; Fontana, Adriana; Henry, Alaina L.; Jones, Tucker A.; Mason, Charlotte A.; Trenti, Michele & Wang, Xin (2016). The Grism lens-amplified survey from space (GLASS). III. A census of Lyα emission at z ≳ 7 from HST spectroscopy. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  818:38 . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/818/1/38
  • Vanzella, E.; De Barros, S.; Cupani, G.; Karman, W.; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Balestra, I.; Coe, D.; Mignoli, M.; Brusa, M.; Calura, F.; Caminha, G. B.; Caputi, K.; Castellano, M.; Christensen, L.; Comastri, A.; Cristiani, S.; Dijkstra, Mark; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Gilli, R.; Grazian, A.; Grillo, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Meneghetti, M.; Nonino, M.; Pentericci, L.; Rosati, P.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.; Vignali, C. & Zamorani, G. (2016). High-Resolution Spectroscopy of A Young, Low-Metallicity Optically Thin L = 0.02L∗ Star-Forming Galaxy at z = 3.12. Astrophysical Journal Letters.  ISSN 2041-8205.  821(2) . doi: 10.3847/2041-8205/821/2/L27
  • Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max Balthasar; Rhoads, James E.; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya & Wang, Junxian (2016). GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS of Lyα ESCAPE. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  820(2) . doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/820/2/130
  • Gronke, Max Balthasar; Bull, Philip James & Dijkstra, Mark (2015). A systematic study of Lyα transfer through outflowing shells: Model parameter estimation. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  812(2) . doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/123
  • Gronke, Max Balthasar; Dijkstra, Mark; Trenti, M. & Wyithe, S. (2015). Connecting faint-end slopes of the Lyman α emitter and Lyman-break galaxy luminosity functions. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  449(2), s 1284- 1290 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv329
  • Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W. & Wong, Joseph (2015). The Lyα Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  803(1) . doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/6
  • Mesinger, Andrei; Aykutalp, Aycin; Vanzella, Eros; Pentericci, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea & Dijkstra, Mark (2015). Can the intergalactic medium cause a rapid drop in Lyα emission at z > 6?. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  446(1), s 566- 577 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu2089
  • Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B; Wang, X.; Bradac, M.; Dijkstra, Mark; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A; Gavazzi, R.; Henry, A. L.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Jones, T. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Mason, C.; Pentericci, L.; Poggianti, B.; Stiavelli, M.; Trenti, M. & von der Linden, A. (2015). The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). I. Survey Overview and First Data Release. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  812(2) . doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/114
  • Dijkstra, Mark (2014). Lyα Emitting Galaxies as a Probe of Reionisation. Publications Astronomical Society of Australia.  ISSN 1323-3580.  31 . doi: 10.1017/pasa.2014.33
  • Garavito-Camargo, J. N.; Forero-Romero, J. E. & Dijkstra, Mark (2014). The impact of gas bulk rotation on the Lyα line. Astrophysical Journal.  ISSN 0004-637X.  795(2) . doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/795/2/120
  • Grönke, Max Balthasar & Dijkstra, Mark (2014). Directional Lyα equivalent boosting - I. Spherically symmetric distributions of clumps. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  ISSN 0035-8711.  444(2), s 1095- 1103 . doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu1513

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Published Dec. 10, 2013 10:49 AM - Last modified June 3, 2016 3:43 PM