Boris Valentijn Schmid

Image of Boris Valentijn Schmid
Norwegian version of this page
Room 3509
Visiting address Kristine Bonnevies hus
Postal address Postboks 1066 Blindern 0316 Oslo

Academic Interests

The evolutionary and ecological dynamics of human diseases, particularly those with a wildlife reservoir. Tools of the trade are statistical methods and simulation modelling. Data comes from surveillance work and various proxies, including historic records of human outbreaks. Currently working on Yersinia pestis, which is the canonical example of a wildlife disease that sporadically erupted into grave pandemics in humans.

I maintain a website at

Tags: Plague, Ecology, Rodents, History, Epidemiology, Ancient DNA, Evolution, China

Selected publications

on the topic of plague (pre-print):

  • Krauer, F. and Schmid, B. V. (2021) ‘Mapping the plague through natural language processing’, medRxiv.
  • Nilsson P, Ravinet M, Cui Y, Berg P, Zhang Y, Guo R, Luo T, Song Y, Trucchi E, Hoff S, Lv R, Schmid BV, Easterday WR, Jakobsen KS, Stenseth NC, Yang R, Jentoft S (2021) ‘Polygenic plague resistance in the great gerbil uncovered by population sequencing’. Available at:

on the topic of plague (published):

  • Carlson, C. J., Bevins, S. N. and Schmid, B. V. (2021) ‘Plague risk in the western United States over seven decades of environmental change’, Global change biology. doi: 10.1111/gcb.15966.
  • Mahmoudi, A., Kryštufek, B., Sludsky, A., Schmid, B. V., DE Almeida, A. M. P., Lei, X., Ramasindrazana, B., Bertherat, E., Yeszhanov, A., Stenseth, N. C. and Mostafavi, E. (2020) ‘Plague reservoir species throughout the world’, Integrative zoology.
  • Nilsson, Pernille, Monica H. Solbakken, Boris V. Schmid, Russell J. S. Orr, Ruichen Lv, Yujun Cui, Yajun Song, et al. 2020. “The Genome of the Great Gerbil Reveals Species-Specific Duplication of an MHCII Gene.” Genome Biology and Evolution 12 (2): 3832–49. (pdf)
  • Cui, Yujun, Boris V. Schmid, Hanli Cao, Xiang Dai, Zongmin Du, W. Ryan Easterday, Haihong Fang,  et al. 2020. “Evolutionary Selection of Biofilm-Mediated Extended Phenotypes in Yersinia Pestis in Response to a Fluctuating Environment.” Nature Communications 11 (1): 281.(pdf)
  • Sun Zhe, Xu Lei, Schmid Boris V., Dean Katharine R., Zhang Zhibin, Xie Yan, Fang Xiye, et al. n.d. “Human Plague System Associated with Rodent Diversity and Other Environmental Factors.” Royal Society Open Science 6 (6): 190216. (pdf)
  • Jones, Susan D., Bakyt Atshabar, Boris V. Schmid, Marlene Zuk, Anna Amramina, and Nils Chr Stenseth. 2019. “Living with Plague: Lessons from the Soviet Union’s Antiplague System.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (19): 9155–63. (pdf)
  • Dean, Katharine R., Fabienne Krauer, and Boris V. Schmid. 2019. “Epidemiology of a Bubonic Plague Outbreak in Glasgow, Scotland in 1900.” Royal Society Open Science 6 (1): 181695. (pdf)
  • Namouchi, Amine, Meriam Guellil, Oliver Kersten, Stephanie Hänsch, Claudio Ottoni, Boris V. Schmid, Elsa Pacciani, et al. 2018. “Integrative Approach Using Yersinia Pestis Genomes to Revisit the Historical Landscape of Plague during the Medieval Period.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, November. (pdf).
  • Katharine R. Dean, Fabienne Krauer, Lars Walløe, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, and Boris V. Schmid. "Human ectoparasites and the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018): 201715640. (pdf)
  • Boris V. Schmid, Ulf Büntgen, W. Ryan Easterday, Christian Ginzler, Lars Walløe, Barbara Bramanti, and Nils Chr. Stenseth. "Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  (2015). (pdf)
  • Xu, Lei, Boris V. Schmid, Jun Liu, Xiaoyan Si, Nils Chr Stenseth, and Zhibin Zhang. "The trophic responses of two different rodent–vector–plague systems to climate change." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282, no. 1800 (2015). (pdf) (supp)
  • Xu Lei, Leif Chr Stige, Kyrre Linné Kausrud, Tamara Ben Ari, Shuchun Wang, Xiye Fang, Boris V. Schmid, Qiyong Liu, Nils Chr Stenseth, and Zhibin Zhang. "Wet climate and transportation routes accelerate spread of human plague." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281, no. 1780 (2014): 20133159. (pdf) (supp)
  • Schmid, B. V., M. Jesse, L. I. Wilschut, H. Viljugrein, and J. A. P. Heesterbeek. "Local persistence and extinction of plague in a metapopulation of great gerbil burrows, Kazakhstan." Epidemics 4, no. 4 (2012): 211-218. (pdf)
Published Sep. 9, 2012 12:20 PM - Last modified Mar. 19, 2022 2:29 PM