CEES Extra seminar: Lectures by Camille Berthelot and Victoria Pritchard
Lecture titles: "Reconstructing the ancestral organisation of genomes to shed light on their evolution" and "Repeated signatures of local selection across salmonid populations"
Reconstructing the ancestral organisation of genomes to shed light on their evolution
Camille Berthelot from Institut de Biologie de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), France
Abstract: Deciphering how genomic sequences evolve has made substantial contributions to our understanding of genome function. These analyses can reveal how genes and non-coding elements emerge, are passed and lost along evolution, duplicate, or acquire new molecular functions. However, sequences alone are not always sufficient to resolve the history of genomes. I will explain how we use synteny - the imperfect conservation of gene organisation along evolution - to investigate questions where sequences alone are not informative. I will show how we leverage this information to resolve the history of duplicated genes, and how we reconstructed the fine-grained structure of entire genomes for dozens of ancestral vertebrates, plants and fungi to investigate the history of genomic rearrangements.
Repeated signatures of local selection across salmonid populations
Victoria Pritchard from Organismal & Evolutionary Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Finland
Abstract: An important question in our understanding of species diversification is whether the same genes are involved in local adaptation across different geographical ranges, evolutionary lineages, and species. Using new genomic tools available for Atlantic salmon, I show that the same regions of the genome repeatedly show signatures of differential local selection over multiple geographical areas. Several of these shared regions include genes with known phenotypic consequences and/or have been implicated as containing locally adaptive loci within other salmonid taxa. These results suggest that several different major-effect genes may repeatedly underlie ecological diversification in salmonid fishes over multiple evolutionary scales.