Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
It is time for this year's last TGAC meeting, where we'll discuss the current "Flock of genomes" special issue of Science about 48 newly released bird genomes. With eight research articles and one review, this special issue could keep the TGAC busy for weeks, but for now I propose to focus on the article of Jarvis et al. entitled "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds".
Abstract: To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago.