Effects of igneous intrusions on the petroleum system: a review
By K. Senger, J. Millett, S. Planke, K. Ogata, C. H. Eide, M. Festøy, O. Galland and D. A. Jerram.
Igneous intrusions feature in many sedimentary basins where hydrocarbon exploration and production is continuing. Due to distinct geophysical property contrasts with siliciclastic host rocks (e.g., higher Vp, density and resistivity than host rocks), intrusions can be easily delineated within data sets including seismic and CSEM profiles, provided igneous bodies are larger than the detection limit of the geophysical methods. On the other hand, igneous bodies affect geophysical imaging in volcanic basins. Recent analyses of 3D seismic data, supported by field observations and lab-based experiments, have provided valuable insights into the prevailing geometries of intrusions, i.e. (1) layer- discordant dykes, (2) layer-parallel sills and (3) saucer-shaped intrusions. Where emplaced, intrusive bodies affect
all five principal components of a given petroleum system: (1) Charge, (2) Migration, (3) Reservoir, (4) Trap and (5) Seal. Magmatic activity may positively or adversely affect any of these individual components, for instance by locally enhancing maturation within the thermal aureoles, typically 30-250% of the intrusion thickness, or by causing regional overmaturation. Site-specific evaluations, including the timing and duration of the magmatic event are needed to evaluate the overall effect of intrusions on a given sedimentary basin’s petroleum system, and these are highlighted by case studies from different volcanic basins.