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Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500–1250 CE (VIKINGS)

Credits: Sarychev Peak Volcano/Wikipedia | Photo of the Oseberg ship: Kirstin Krüger/UiO

Credits: Sarychev Peak Volcano/ Wikipedia | Photo of the Oseberg ship: Kirstin Krüger/UiO

About the project

This multi-disciplinary project aims to understand the role of volcanic eruptions and climate change in shaping the early history of Europe. The period 500-1250 CE is characterized by natural disasters, societal unrest, Viking expansion, emerging kingship - and large volcanic eruptions evidenced by geochemical markers in natural archives. At present, we know little about the climate variations in Europe and especially in Scandinavia during this period.

The VIKINGS project seeks to reveal the climate of the early historic period, and resolve how volcanic eruptions and their environmental impacts facilitated societal changes during the Viking era.

Objectives

To advance the knowledge and understanding of major volcanic eruptions effects on climate, environment, and society in Scandinavia and Europe at the dawn of the Middle Ages.

Background

Large volcanic eruptions are the major drivers of natural climate variability in the pre-industrial era of the last millennium. They are thought to have triggered the onset of the Little Ice Age (end of 13th century) sustained by sea‐ice/ocean feedbacks. Only recently, new high resolution ice core records led to a rewriting of the volcanic eruption history of the past 2500 years. In particular, previous ice-core volcanic sulphur records before ~1200 CE have been deemed as incorrectly dated and insufficiently synchronized, leading to an overall unreliable history of volcanic forcing. Thus, less is known about the climate effects of large volcanic eruptions during the first millennium.

In this project we will analyse new and available model data, proxy and archaeological records in Scandinavia which will enable us to uniquely interpret the climate, environment, and society response of major volcanic eruptions during the Early and High Middle Ages (500-1250 CE) within the Vikings period.

Financing

The full project name is Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500–1250 CE (VIKINGS). The project is funded as a Ground-breaking research (tidligere FRIPRO) project by the Research Council of Norway, with NFR project number 275191.

The Vikings-project period is from 1st July 2018 until 30th June 2023.

Cooperation

Publications

  • Plunkett, Gill; Sigl, Michael & et al, . (2022). No evidence for tephra in Greenland from the historic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE: implications for geochronology and paleoclimatology. Climate of the Past. ISSN 1814-9324. 18, p. 45–65. doi: https%3A/doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-45-2022.
  • Mjærum, Axel; Loftsgarden, Kjetil & Solheim, Steinar (2022). Human-vegetation dynamics in Holocene south-eastern Norway based on radiocarbon dated charcoal from archaeological excavations. The Holocene. ISSN 0959-6836. 32(7), p. 690–702. doi: 10.1177/09596836221088242. Full text in Research Archive
  • Bajard, Manon Juliette Andree; Ballo, Eirik Gottschalk; Høeg, Helge Irgens; Bakke, Jostein; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel & Loftsgarden, Kjetil [Show all 11 contributors for this article] (2022). Climate adaptation of pre-Viking societies. Quaternary Science Reviews. ISSN 0277-3791. 278. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107374.
  • Van Dijk, Evelien; Mørkestøl Gundersen, Ingar; de Bode, Anna; Høeg, Helge; Loftsgarden, Kjetil & Iversen, Frode [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2022). Climate and society impacts in Scandinavia following the 536/540 CE volcanic double event. Climate of the Past. ISSN 1814-9324. doi: 10.5194/cp-2022-23.
  • ter Schure, Anneke Theresia Maria; Bajard, Manon Juliette Andree; Loftsgarden, Kjetil; Høeg, Helge Irgens; Ballo, Eirik Gottschalk & Bakke, Jostein [Show all 12 contributors for this article] (2021). Anthropogenic and environmental drivers of vegetation change in southeastern Norway during the Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews. ISSN 0277-3791. 270. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2021.107175. Full text in Research Archive
  • Abbott, Peter; Plunkett, Gill; et al, . & Sigl, Michael (2021). Cryptotephra from the Icelandic Veiðivötn 1477 CE eruption in a Greenland ice core: confirming the dating of volcanic events in the 1450s CE and assessing the eruption's climatic impact. Climate of the Past. ISSN 1814-9324. 17, p. 565–585. doi: https%3A/doi.org/10.5194/cp-17-565-2021.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). Ferd og frakt over fjell og vidde. Primitive tider. ISSN 1501-0430. 21, p. 7–23. doi: 10.5617/pt.7555. Full text in Research Archive
  • Solheim, Steinar & Iversen, Frode (2019). The mid-6th century crises and their impacts on human activity and settlements in southeastern Norway. In Brady, Niall & Theune, Claudia (Ed.), SETTLEMENT CHANGE ACROSS MEDIEVAL EUROPE OLD PARADIGMS AND NEW VISTAS. Sidestone Press. ISSN 978-90-8890-806-4. p. 423–434. Full text in Research Archive
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). The prime movers of iron production in the Norwegian Viking and Middle Ages. Fornvännen. ISSN 0015-7813. 2019(2), p. 75–87.
  • Toohey, Matthew; Krüger, Kirstin; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia; Sigl, Michael & Stoffel, Markus [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2019). Disproportionately strong climate forcing from extratropical explosive volcanic eruptions. Nature Geoscience. ISSN 1752-0894. 12, p. 100–107. doi: 10.1038/s41561-018-0286-2.
  • Gundersen, Ingar Mørkestøl (2019). The Fimbulwinter theory and the 6th century crisis in the light of Norwegian archaeology: Towards a human-environmental approach. Primitive tider. ISSN 1501-0430. 21, p. 101–119. doi: 10.5617/pt.7538. Full text in Research Archive

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  • Gundersen, Ingar Mørkestøl (2022). Iron Age Vulnerability. An analytical approach to the Fimbulwinter hypothesis.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2022). The wonderful 7th century.
  • Boessenkool, Sanne (2022). Unearthing past ecologies and societies using sedimentary ancient DNA.
  • Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn (2022). Arctic Polar Vortex Controls Aerosol Evolution After High-Latitude Volcanic Eruptions.
  • Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn (2022). High-Latitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions and Their Sensitivity to Source Parameters.
  • Zhuo, Zhihong; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn & Krüger, Kirstin (2022). Impacts of tropical versus extratropical volcanic eruptions co-injecting sulfur and halogen to the stratosphere.
  • Zhuo, Zhihong; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Toohey, Matthew; Mills, Michael J & Krüger, Kirstin (2022). Impacts of tropical versus extratropical volcanic eruptions co-injecting sulphur and halogen to the stratosphere.
  • Zhuo, Zhihong; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Toohey, Matthew & Krüger, Kirstin (2022). Impacts of tropical versus extratropical volcanic eruptions with sulphur and halogen injections to the stratosphere.
  • Tjoflot, Gunn Kristin (2022). The Vikings project in brief: New YouTube film.
  • Ballo, Eirik Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Juliette Andree; Bakke, Jostein; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; D'Andrea, William J. & Høeg, Helge Irgens (2022). Lake Sagtjernet hydrogen isotopes and pollen .
  • Ballo, Eirik Gottschalk (2022). Lipid biomarkers in Lake Sagtjernet, Norway.
  • Bajard, Manon Juliette Andree (2022). Agricultural and climatic contexts associated to the Fimbulwinter in the area of Gardermoen: when pre-Viking societies adapted to the climate.
  • Krüger, Kirstin (2022). VIKINGS: Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 Common Era.
  • Krüger, Kirstin; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Van Dijk, Evelien; Zhuo, Zhihong; Sigl, Michael & Toohey, Matthew (2022). Modelling volcanic climate and environmental impacts and their signals in ice cores.
  • Krüger, Kirstin; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Zhuo, Zhihong; Mills, Mike & Sigl, Michael (2022). Volcanic sulfate deposition to Greenland and Antarctica: A modeling sensitivity study with CESM(WACCM).
  • Krüger, Kirstin (2022). VIKINGS - Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE. [Internet]. YouTube.
  • Gabriel, Imogen & Sigl, Michael (2022). Insight into volcano-climate impacts between 750 and 770 CE using the Greenland ice core records.
  • Hutchinson, William & Sigl, Michael (2022). Timing and climate impact of Iceland’s largest basaltic eruptions: new insights from ice core archives.
  • Gabriel, Imogen & Sigl, Michael (2022). Deciphering the sources and climate impact potential of pre-historic volcanic eruptions from Iceland using the Greenland ice cores: a case study from the 8th century.
  • Sigl, Michael; Gabriel, Imogen & Krüger, Kirstin (2022). Timing of Holocene volcanic eruptions and their radiative aerosol forcing.
  • Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Zhuo, Zhihong; Mills, Michael J. & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Modelling the atmospheric impacts of high-latitude explosive volcanic eruptions.
  • Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Zhuo, Zhihong; Michael, Mills & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Modelling the atmospheric impacts of high-latitude explosive volcanic eruptions.
  • ter Schure, Anneke; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Loftsgarden, Kjetil; Høeg, Helge Irgens; Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk & Bakke, Jostein [Show all 12 contributors for this article] (2021). Anthropogenic and environmental drivers of biological change in southeastern Norway during the Holocene.
  • ter Schure, Anneke; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Loftsgarden, Kjetil; Høeg, Helge Irgens; Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk & Bakke, Jostein [Show all 12 contributors for this article] (2021). Disentangling anthropogenic and environmental drivers of biological change in southeastern Norway during the Holocene.
  • Van Dijk, Evelien; Gundersen, Ingar Mørkestøl; Loftsgarden, Kjetil; Ballo, Eirik Gottschalk; Krüger, Kirstin & Iversen, Frode (2021). Can we link volcanic impacts on the climate to a change in society?
  • Van Dijk, Evelien; Gundersen, Ingar Mørkestøl; Loftsgarden, Kjetil; Krüger, Kirstin & Iversen, Frode (2021). Can we link volcanic impacts on the climate to a change in society in Norway?
  • Sigl, Michael; Krüger, Kirstin & Et al, More authors (2021). Insights on the timing, global sulfate lifecycle an􀀀 climate impact of Earth's largest (pre-) historic volcanic eruptions. EGU General Assembly. EGU21-946. doi: 10.5194/egusphere-egu21-946%2C%202021.
  • Bajard, Manon Juliette Andree (2021). PC1. Improving food security: new techniques. [Internet]. Press conference/EGU General Assembly 2021.
  • Zhuo, Zhihong; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Toohey, Matthew; Mills, Michael J. & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Model comparison of stratospheric aerosol forcing of tropical and extratropi-cal volcanic eruptions.
  • Zhuo, Zhihong; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn; Toohey, Matthew; Mills, Michael J. & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Model comparison of aerosol forcing and impactof tropicaland extratropical eruptions.
  • Bajard, Manon Juliette Andree & Dacey, James (2021). Food Security Lessons from the Vikings. [Journal]. EOS Science News by AGU.
  • Van Dijk, Evelien & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Impact of large volcanic eruptions on the 6th-7th century climate.
  • Van Dijk, Evelien & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Large volcanic eruptions as a natural hazard: The impact of the 536/540 CE double event on the atmospheric circulation, surface climate, vegetation and society in Scandinavia.
  • Ballo, Eirik Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Juliette Andree; Bakke, Jostein & Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel (2021). Using CT scans to count varves: Application to Lake Sagtjernet.
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Høeg, Helge I.; Bakke, Jostein; Støren, Eivind N. & Loftsgarden, Kjetil [Show all 11 contributors for this article] (2021). Instability or adaptation of the pre-Viking society to the climate variability of the Late Antiquity?
  • Fuglestvedt, Herman; Krüger, Kirstin; Zhuo, Zhihong; Sigl, Michael; Toohey, Matthew & Mills, Michael J. (2021). Modelling high-latitude explosive eruptions and their atmospheric and environmental impacts .
  • Zhuo, Zhihong; Fuglestvedt, Herman Fæhn & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Impacts of tropical versus extratropical volcanic eruptions (including volcanic sulphur and halogen injections).
  • Zhuo, Zhihong; Fuglestvedt, Herman; Toohey, Matthew; Mills, Michael J. & Krüger, Kirstin (2021). Model comparison of volcanic aerosol forcing and climate impact of tropical and extratropical eruptions.
  • Tjoflot, Gunn Kristin (2021). Food Security Lessons from the Vikings.
  • Gabriel, Imogen & Sigl, Michael (2021). Tephra in the Greenland Ice cores: Insights into Icelandic volcano-climate impacts.
  • Gabriel, Imogen & Sigl, Michael (2021). Unlocking the secrets of past Icelandic volcanism with tephra.
  • Sigl, Michael (2021). Volcanism & Climate during the past 2,500 years; Joint seminar in atmospheric, ocean and climate science.
  • Van Dijk, Evelien & Krüger, Kirstin (2020). Was there a volcanic induced long lasting cooling in the mid 6th-7th century?
  • Van Dijk, Evelien Jacoba Cornelia & Krüger, Kirstin (2020). The impact of the 536/540 CE double volcanic eruption event on the climate.
  • Van Dijk, Evelien Jacoba Cornelia & Krüger, Kirstin (2020). Impact of the 536/540 CE double eruption event on the 6th -7th century climate using model and proxy data.
  • Fuglestvedt, Herman & Kirstin, Krüger (2020). Modelling the Atmospheric Forcing of High-Latitude Volcanic Eruptions.
  • Van Dijk, Evelien Jacoba Cornelia & Krüger, Kirstin (2020). Impact of the 536/540 CE double volcanic eruption event on the 6th-7th century climate using model and proxy data.
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree (2020). The hidden face of lakes: how natural archives bring us back to the Viking Age and beyond.
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; Bakke, Jostein; Høeg, Helge Irgens & Loftsgarden, Kjetil [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2020). Record of climate and environmental changes in a dead-ice lake close to Gardermoen told by a 10 000 years old freshwater fish and a Viking King.
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; Bakke, Jostein; Høeg, Helge Irgens & Loftsgarden, Kjetil [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2020). Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE .
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; Bakke, Jostein; Høeg, Helge Irgens & Loftsgarden, Kjetil [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2020). Tracing socio-environmental dynamics and climate changes in the period 300-1300 CE in Scandinavia from lake sediments.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2020). How many Vikings were there? The population of Western Scandinavia 400–1000.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2020). The population of Western Scandinavia 400–1000 AD.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2020). I vikingtida stod innlandet for ein enorm jernproduksjon. Forskning.no. ISSN 1891-635X.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2020). Ferd og frakt over fjell og vidde. Forskning.no. ISSN 1891-635X.
  • Krüger, Kirstin (2020). Volcanic Eruptins and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE .
  • Smedsrud, Morten Skipenes & Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2020). Finner tegn til ekte fimbulvinter. [Journal]. Apollon.
  • Tjoflot, Gunn Kristin (2020). Finner tegn på at fimbulvinteren har skjedd.
  • Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Bakke, Jostein & Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel (2019). Reconstructing climate and socio-environmental changes using lake sediments .
  • Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Bakke, Jostein & Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel (2019). Reconstructing climate and socio-environmental changes using lake sediments .
  • Van Dijk, Evelien Jacoba Cornelia (2019). The impact of the double volcanic eruption event 536/540 CE on the climate.
  • Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Bakke, Jostein & Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel (2019). Reconstructing climate and socio-environmental changes using lake sediments .
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). Mass production and marketplaces from the late Viking Age.
  • Krüger, Kirstin (2019). Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE .
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). Skeid.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). The demography of the Viking Age or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Big Data.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). Store og små vestnorske marknadsplassar.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). It's Iron ore it's nothing!
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). Hestekamp og handel i vikingtid og middelalder’.
  • Krüger, Kirstin (2019). Working Group Overview.
  • Krüger, Kirstin; Sigl, Michael; Toohey, Matthey & Iversen, Frode (2019). Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE .
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). Vikingar og vulkaner. Klima og samfunnsutvikling 536–1250.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). The production of iron at seasonal settlements in the Norwegian mountains.
  • Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; Bakke, Jostein & Svensen, Henrik (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and Viking age.
  • Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; Bakke, Jostein & Svensen, Henrik (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and Viking age.
  • Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; Bakke, Jostein & Svensen, Henrik (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and the Viking age.
  • Loftsgarden, Kjetil (2019). VIKINGS project.
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Eirik, Ballo; Jostein, Bakke; Eivind, Støren; Helge, Høeg & Frode, Iversen [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2019). Socio-environmental dynamics and volcanic eruptions in the 500-1250 CE period in Scandinavia: new sight in Lake Ljøgottjern sediment sequence.
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Eirik, Ballo; Jostein, Bakke; Eivind, Støren; Helge, Høeg & Frode, Iversen [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2019). Socio-environmental dynamics and volcanic eruptions in the 500-1250 CE period in Scandinavia: new sight in Lake Ljøgottjern sediment sequence.
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree & Eirik, Ballo (2019). First insight in Norwegian sedimentary archives .
  • Bostic, Joshua Neilson; Hagopian, William Martin; Svensen, Henrik & Jahren, Anne Hope (2019). Predicting seasonal climate using intra-ring stable isotope analysis.
  • Ballo, Eirik Magnus Gottschalk; Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree; Støren, Eivind Wilhelm Nagel; Bakke, Jostein & Svensen, Henrik (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and Viking age.
  • Tjoflot, Gunn Kristin (2018). Natural sciences and history, the Vikings seen in light of climate changes.
  • Tjoflot, Gunn Kristin (2018). Vulkanutbrudd og klimaendringer, hva betydde det for vikingene? .
  • Bajard, Manon Julietto Andree & Kirstin, Krüger (2018). VIKINGS Project Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE .
  • Gundersen, Ingar Mørkestøl (2021). Iron Age Vulnerability. The Fimbulwinter hypothesis and the archaeology of the inlands of eastern Norway. Faculty of Humanities, University of Oslo. Full text in Research Archive

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Published Jan. 25, 2019 2:43 PM - Last modified Sep. 16, 2022 3:20 PM