Einar Eftestøl

Image of Einar Eftestøl
Norwegian version of this page
Phone +47 22859063
Mobile phone +47 92210058
Room 2617
Visiting address Blindernveien 31 0371 Oslo
Postal address Postboks 1066 Blindern 0316 Oslo

Academic Interests

I study cellular and molecular mechanisms for skeletal muscle growth (hypertrophy). In my PhD-project i found the importance of mechanical stimuli (load) in skeletal muscle hypertrophy by using a rat model for strength training. I also studied the importance of and mechanisms behind muscle memory (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscle_memory_(strength_training)) by using a mouse model for strength training.

In my work as a postdoc at UiO I am continuing the work of finding the underlying mechanisms of how mechanical stimuli can lead to hypertrophy. I am also involved in a collaboration where we are studying whether muscle memory also takes place in humans.


FRM1040 - Foundation biology for pharmacists

FRM1050 - Drugs and How They Work Part I

Higher education and employment history

Bachelor in Molecular Bioscience, UIO 2007.

Master of Science in Physiology, UIO 2009.

PhD in Physiology, UiO 2015.

Tags: muscle memory, hypertrophy, muscle growth, Skeletal muscle physiology, mechanical stimuli


  • Cramer, Alyssa A. W.; Prasad, Vikram; Eftestøl, Einar; Song, Taejeong; Hansson, Kenth-Arne; Dugdale, Hannah F.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Ochala, Julien; Gundersen, Kristian & Millay, Douglas P. (2020). Nuclear numbers in syncytial muscle fibers promote size but limit the development of larger myonuclear domains. Nature Communications.  ISSN 2041-1723.  11, s 1- 14 . doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-20058-7 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Hansson, Kenth-Arne; Eftestøl, Einar; Bruusgaard, Jo C.; Juvkam, Inga; Cramer, Alyssa W.; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Millay, Douglas P. & Gundersen, Kristian (2020). Myonuclear content regulates cell size with similar scaling properties in mice and humans. Nature Communications.  ISSN 2041-1723.  11(1) . doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-20057-8 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Psilander, Niklas; Eftestøl, Einar; Cumming, Kristoffer Toldnes; Solgård, Inga Juvkam; Ekblom, Maria M.; Sunding, Kerstin; Wernbom, Mathias; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Ekblom, Björn; Bruusgaard, Jo C.; Raastad, Truls & Gundersen, Kristian (2019). Effects of training, detraining, and retraining on strength, hypertrophy, and myonuclear number in human skeletal muscle. Journal of applied physiology.  ISSN 8750-7587.  126(6), s 1636- 1645 . doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00917.2018 Full text in Research Archive. Show summary
  • Gundersen, Kristian; Bruusgaard, Jo C.; Egner, Ingrid Marie; Eftestøl, Einar & Bengtsen, Mads (2018). Muscle memory: virtues of your youth?. Journal of Physiology.  ISSN 0022-3751.  596(18), s 4289- 4290 . doi: 10.1113/JP276354
  • Winje, Ivan; Bengtsen, Mads; Eftestøl, Einar; Juvkam, Inga; Bruusgaard, Jo C. & Gundersen, Kristian (2018). Specific labelling of myonuclei by an antibody against pericentriolar material 1 on skeletal muscle tissue sections. Acta Physiologica.  ISSN 1748-1708.  223(4), s 1- 9 . doi: 10.1111/apha.13034 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Eftestøl, Einar; Egner, Ingrid Marie; Lunde, Ida Gjervold; Ellefsen, Stian; Andersen, Tom; Sjåland, Cecilie; Gundersen, Kristian & Bruusgaard, Jo C. (2016). Increased hypertrophic response with increased mechanical load in skeletal muscles receiving identical activity patterns. American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology.  ISSN 0363-6143.  311(4), s C616- C629 . doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00016.2016
  • Kong, Xiang Yi; Feng, Yuan Zeng; Eftestøl, Einar; Kase, Eili Tranheim; Haugum, Hanne; Eskild, Winnie; Rustan, Arild & Thoresen, G. Hege (2016). Increased glucose utilization and decreased fatty acid metabolism in myotubes from Glmpgt/gt mice. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry.  ISSN 1381-3455.  122(1), s 36- 45 . doi: 10.3109/13813455.2015.1120752
  • Eftestøl, Einar; Alver, Tine Norman; Gundersen, Kristian & Bruusgaard, Jo C. (2014). Overexpression of SMPX in adult skeletal muscle does not change skeletal muscle fiber type or size. PLOS ONE.  ISSN 1932-6203.  9(6) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099232 Full text in Research Archive.
  • Egner, Ingrid Marie; Bruusgaard, Jo C.; Eftestøl, Einar & Gundersen, Kristian (2013). A cellular memory mechanism aids overload hypertrophy in muscle long after an episodic exposure to anabolic steroids. Journal of Physiology.  ISSN 0022-3751.  591(24), s 6221- 6230 . doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.264457

View all works in Cristin

  • Eftestøl, Einar (2020). Excitation and tension development—The Yin & Yang of muscle signalling. Acta Physiologica.  ISSN 1748-1708.  231(2) . doi: 10.1111/apha.13575
  • Bengtsen, Mads; Winje, Ivan; Eftestøl, Einar; Domanska, Diana Ewa; Landskron, Johannes & Gundersen, Kristian (2019). The Epigenetic landscape of two phenotypic extreme skeletal muscles - soleus and EDL. Acta Physiologica.  ISSN 1748-1708. . doi: 10.1111/apha.13414
  • Eftestøl, Einar; Psilander, Niklas; Cumming, Kristoffer Toldnes; Juvkam, Inga; Ekblom, Maria M.; Sunding, Kerstin; Wernbom, Mathias; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Ekblom, Björn; Bruusgaard, Jo C.; Raastad, Truls & Gundersen, Kristian (2019). Muscle memory: Are myonuclei ever lost?. Journal of applied physiology.  ISSN 8750-7587.  128(2), s 456- 457 . doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00761.2019
  • Eftestøl, Einar; Egner, Ingrid Marie; Ellefsen, Stian; Andersen, Tom; Gundersen, Kristian & Bruusgaard, Jo C. (2016). The importance of mechanosensation in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
  • Eftestøl, Einar (2015). The role of mechanical stimuli and myonuclei in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Series of dissertations submitted to the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo.. 1593.
  • Eftestøl, Einar; Bruusgaard, Jo C. & Gundersen, Kristian (2012). The contraction duration is not important for hypertrophy in strength trained rats.
  • Egner, Ingrid Marie; Bruusgaard, Jo C.; Eftestøl, Einar & Gundersen, Kristian (2012). Effects of anabolic steroid on nuclear number and muscle mass.
  • Gundersen, Kristian; Eftestøl, Einar; Egner, Ingrid Marie & Bruusgaard, Jo C. (2011). The effect of testosterone propionate on overloaded skeletal muscle.
  • Hansen, Einar Eftestøl Holm; Bruusgaard, Jo C. & Gundersen, Kristian (2009). What is the role of SMPX in skeletal muscle?. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility.  ISSN 0142-4319.  129(1), s 329

View all works in Cristin

Published Nov. 4, 2010 2:39 PM - Last modified May 10, 2016 12:25 PM