How Many Charging Stations Needed for e-Cars in Oslo by 2020?

(photo from



Norway is recognized as the country with the largest electric cars per capita in the world. In 2015, electric vehicles had a 22 % market share in Norway (

At the end of 2015, there is a very hot debate in Norway about the traffic in the Oslo center. It is expected that by 2019 private cars are banned in the Oslo center. Following this policy, all private cars have to stop around Ring 1 in Oslo. All electric vehicles also stop at Ring 1. We define the term “Charging Zone” to refer to the area where all electric vehicles stop and charge their batteries.

One significant consequence is that all electric vehicles will be charged at the same time on the early morning in the charging zone. This will give very high electricity demand to the power grid and serious blackouts may happen. The power demand may be also very dynamic at different time and different location. Consequently, to successfully implement the “bilfritt” policy by 2020, we need to make a very careful design for electric vehicles, charging stations and smart grid. In particular, we should decide the number of charging stations needed and also the location of charging stations.


Plan the charging stations for electric vehicles in Oslo by 2020

What will I do?

  • Build the market model of electric vehicles to understand the possible number of electric vehicles by 2020
  • Build the electric vehicles dynamics model to Oslo Center
  • Build the power demand model (or battery charging model) of electric vehicles
  • Build the electricity supply model from power grid
  • Formulate a problem to consider electric vehicles dynamics, maps, road conditions, charging zone, and power grid demand-response
  • Solve the formulated problem to determine: (1) the number of charging stations; (2) the location of charging stations
  • Develop visualization program for easy understanding


Yan Zhang, IFI, University of Oslo, Norway. Email:

Sabita Maharjan, Simula Research Laboratory, Norway. Email:

Stein Gjessing, IFI, University of Oslo, Norway. Email:

Publisert 13. sep. 2016 13:52 - Sist endret 13. sep. 2016 14:50

Omfang (studiepoeng)