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On November 13, 1985, a relatively small phreatic-magmatic eruption of Nevado
del Ruiz in the Central Andes of
23`000 people killed or missing, 4`420 injured, 5`092 homes destroyed, and 210`000 hectares of land stripped or buried in muddy debris. (The damage costs were estimated at 200 Mio US$.)
Pierson, T. C., Janda, R. J., Thouret, J. J., Borrero, C. A. (1989): Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 41, 17 - 66.