Tutorial at IROS 2022 - Ethical, Legal and User Perspectives on Robots and Systems (ELAUPORAS) – Assessments and Potential Measures
Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies, including robots, pose challenges and opportunities for health- and home care. Amongst the relevant and essential aspects currently discussed are privacy, cybersecurity, safety, diversity, and inclusion considerations. There is increasing attention on the ethical implications and legal issues related to robots and systems. Recently, the European Commission has proposed the new regulation on Artificial Intelligence, e.g., the Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) (European Commission 2021a), and the New Machinery Directive (MD) (European Commission 2021b). Other important ongoing efforts are defining standards for intelligent systems and studying design with user participation.
The tutorial will provide an overview of the most pressing ethical and legal challenges surrounding the development and use of robots in human environments. The tutorial will illustrate the challenges related to privacy, security, safety, and diversity of users through several examples from the speakers different countries. The tutorial aims to raise awareness about these topics and engage with the community to think about ways to reduce the unfavorable impact on society.
Further, in relation to human rights and non-discrimination, we will introduce Universal Design (UD) as an ethical charter for inclusive robot design and interaction. Specifically, the tutorial will further present the UD principles that so far have been used not only in physical environments for providing accessibility to people with disabilities but also in the design of web interfaces and mobile applications. Under the umbrella of UD, the tutorial will include presentations and discussions around users' inclusion and diversity. Specifically, the tutorial will show why, how, and when these principles can be valuable and relevant for robot designers, engineers, researchers, and others working within the robotics domain.Furthermore, these topics will be exemplified with concrete examples from current or previous research projects on how various vulnerable users (e.g., elderly) experience and/or understand their interaction (Hellström and Bensch 2018) with various types of care robots, e.g., SAR. The notion of care robots, participation of vulnerable users in studies with robots, UD and inclusion, ethics, ethics of care, roboethics will be discussed.
Further, among the most important challenges within human-robot interaction are those related to privacy, safety and security. Countermeasures can be taken at different points in time while planning, designing, implementing, or using a robot, or a service including a robot. At the use time, there will be a need for the system by itself to perform some ethical reasoning if operating in autonomous mode. Specific attention will be needed if multiple, fully autonomous systems are to interact and make decisions together. We are currently undertaking research in various projects where the challenges appear, including robots for elderly at home and mental health care technology. Responsible personalization is one of the main goals of these projects. The tutorial will introduce some examples from our own and others´ work and how the challenges can be addressed both from technical and human perspectives. Ethical issues should not be seen only as challenges but also as new research opportunities contributing to more useful services and systems.
This work is partially supported by The Research Council of Norway as a part of Collaboration on Intelligent Machines (COINMAC) project, under grant agreement 261645, Vulnerability in the Robot Society (VIROS) under grant agreement 288285 and through its Centres of Excellence scheme, RITMO with project No. 262762.
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Link to 2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2022): https://www.iros2022.org