paulrbe

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Academic interests

I am a dedicated marine biologist and population geneticist. I have been working with biology (mostly at a marine molecular level) since I finished my master degree in marine biology/ population genetics at NTNU in 1999. In recent years I have been working on a PhD thesis (at CEES, UiO) entitled “Genomic divergence in Atlantic cod populations” which was submitted in December 2016 and defended in early April 2017. Over the years, I have been involved in a large number of projects that covers a wide variety of research on animals, plants and humans. In addition to my own research, that primarily covers marine genomics (mostly Atlantic cod and salmon), I have experience in projects dealing with artificial selection and traceability within production animals (sheep, goat, cattle and pig) and several plant related projects. I have also been involved in several human genomic projects focusing on deceases (cancer, diabetes, migraine), forensics and ageing.

I am formally employed as a Postdoc at Centre for Coastal Research at the University of Agder but located at CEES (University of Oslo). I currently do research on genetic population structure/ population genomics in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and the invasive red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus). -In addition, I continue to do population genomic work on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

Tags: Population genetics, Population genomics, Atlantic cod, Adaptation, Evolutionary genomics, Molecular ecology, Bioinformatics

Publications

  • Berg, Paul R.; Jorde, Per E.; Glover, Kevin A.; Dahle, Geir; Taggart, John B. & Korsbrekke, Knut [Show all 12 contributors for this article] (2021). Genetic structuring in Atlantic haddock contrasts with current management regimes. ICES Journal of Marine Science. ISSN 1054-3139. 78(1), p. 1–13. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsaa204.
  • Langangen, Øystein; Färber, Leonie Anette; Stige, Leif Christian; Diekert, Florian Klaus; Barth, Julia Maria Isis & Matschiner, Michael [Show all 11 contributors for this article] (2018). Ticket to spawn: Combining economic and genetic data to evaluate the effect of climate and demographic structure on spawning distribution in Atlantic cod. Global Change Biology. ISSN 1354-1013. 25(1), p. 134–143. doi: 10.1111/gcb.14474. Full text in Research Archive
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar; Star, Bastiaan; Pampoulie, Christophe; Bradbury, Ian R.; Bentzen, Paul & Hutchings, Jeffrey [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2017). Trans-oceanic genomic divergence of Atlantic cod ecotypes is associated with large inversions. Heredity. ISSN 0018-067X. 119, p. 418–428. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2017.54. Full text in Research Archive
  • Barth, Julia Maria Isis; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Jonsson, Per R; Bonanomi, Sara; Corell, Hanna & Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob [Show all 16 contributors for this article] (2017). Genome architecture enables local adaptation of Atlantic cod despite high connectivity. Molecular Ecology. ISSN 0962-1083. 26(17), p. 4452–4466. doi: 10.1111/mec.14207. Full text in Research Archive
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar; Star, Bastiaan; Pampoulie, Christophe; Sodeland, Marte; Barth, Julia Maria Isis & Knutsen, Halvor [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2016). Three chromosomal rearrangements promote genomic divergence between migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod. Scientific Reports. ISSN 2045-2322. 6, p. 1–12. doi: 10.1038/srep23246. Full text in Research Archive
  • Sodeland, Marte; Jorde, Per Erik; Lien, Sigbjørn; Jentoft, Sissel; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Grove, Harald [Show all 10 contributors for this article] (2016). "Islands of divergence" in the Atlantic cod genome represent polymorphic chromosomal rearrangements. Genome Biology and Evolution (GBE). ISSN 1759-6653. 8(4), p. 1012–1022. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evw057. Full text in Research Archive
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar; Jentoft, Sissel; Star, Bastiaan; Ring, Kristoffer Hofaker; Knutsen, Halvor & Lien, Sigbjørn [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2015). Adaptation to low salinity promotes genomic divergence in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.). Genome Biology and Evolution (GBE). ISSN 1759-6653. 7(6), p. 1644–1663. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evv093. Full text in Research Archive
  • Pampoulie, Christophe; Skírnisdóttir, Sigurlaug; Star, Bastiaan; Jentoft, Sissel; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg G. & Hjorleifsson, Einar [Show all 13 contributors for this article] (2015). Rhodopsin Gene Polymorphism Associated with Divergent Light Environments in Atlantic Cod. Behavior Genetics. ISSN 0001-8244. 45(2), p. 236–244. doi: 10.1007/s10519-014-9701-7.
  • Bradbury, Ian R.; Bowman, Sharen; Borza, Tudor; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; Hutchings, Jeffrey A. & Berg, Paul Ragnar [Show all 11 contributors for this article] (2014). Long distance linkage disequilibrium and limited hybridization suggest cryptic speciation in Atlantic cod. PLOS ONE. ISSN 1932-6203. 9(9). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106380. Full text in Research Archive
  • Andersen, Øivind; Rosa, Maria; Yadav, Prakash; Pirolli, Davide; Fernandes, Jorge & Berg, Paul Ragnar [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2014). The conserved Phe GH5 of importance for hemoglobin intersubunit contact is mutated in gadoid fish. BMC Evolutionary Biology. ISSN 1471-2148. 14. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-14-54. Full text in Research Archive
  • Westengen, Ola Tveitereid; Ring, Kristoffer Hofaker; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Brysting, Anne Krag (2014). Modern maize varieties going local in the semi-arid zone in Tanzania. BMC Evolutionary Biology. ISSN 1471-2148. 14(1), p. 1–12. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-14-1. Full text in Research Archive
  • Culling, Mark; Freamo, Heather; Patterson, Kristen; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Lien, Sigbjørn & Boulding, Elizabeth G. (2013). Signatures of Selection on Growth, Shape, Parr Marks, and SNPs Among Seven Canadian Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Populations. Open Evolution Journal. ISSN 1874-4044. 7. doi: 10.2174/1874404401307010001.
  • Pedersen, Stephanie; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Culling, Mark; Danzmann, Roy G.; Glebe, Brian & Leadbeater, Steven [Show all 10 contributors for this article] (2013). Quantitative trait loci for precocious parr maturation, early smoltification, and adult maturation in double-backcrossed trans-Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture. ISSN 0044-8486. 410-411, p. 164–171. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.06.039.
  • Brazauskas, Gintaras; Xing, Yongzhong; Studer, Bruno; Schejbel, Britt; Frei, Ursula & Berg, Paul Ragnar [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2013). Identification of genomic loci associated with crown rust resistance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)divergently selected populations. Plant Science. ISSN 0168-9452. 208, p. 34–41. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.02.017.
  • Kerty, Emilia; Heuser, Kjell; Indahl, Ulf Geir; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Nakken, Sigve & Lien, Sigbjørn [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2013). Is the brain water channel aquaporin-4 a pathogenetic factor in idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Results from a combined clinical and genetic study in a Norwegian cohort. Acta Ophthalmologica. ISSN 1755-375X. 91(1), p. 88–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2011.02231.x.
  • Westengen, Ola Tveitereid; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Kent, Matthew Peter & Brysting, Anne Krag (2012). Spatial Structure and Climatic Adaptation in African Maize Revealed by Surveying SNP Diversity in Relation to Global Breeding and Landrace Panels. PLOS ONE. ISSN 1932-6203. 7(10). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047832. Full text in Research Archive
  • Egeland, Thore; Fonneløp, Ane Elida; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Kent, Matthew Peter & Lien, Sigbjørn (2012). Complex mixtures: A critical examination of a paper by Homer et al. Forensic Science International. ISSN 0379-0738. 6(1), p. 64–69. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.02.003.
  • Lehtonen, PK; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, AV; Belskii, E; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Both, C [Show all 20 contributors for this article] (2012). Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range. Heredity. ISSN 0018-067X. 108(4), p. 431–440. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2011.93.
  • Vasemägi, Anti; Nilsson, Jan; McGinnity, Philip; Cross, Tom; O'Reilly, Patrick & Glebe, Brian [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2012). Screen for Footprints of Selection during Domestication/Captive Breeding of Atlantic Salmon. Comparative and Functional Genomics. ISSN 1531-6912. 2012. doi: 10.1155/2012/628204.
  • Lien, Sigbjørn; Gidskehaug, Lars Halvor; Moen, Thomas; Hayes, Ben J.; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Davidson, William S [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2011). A dense SNP-based linkage map for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals extended chromosome homeologies and striking differences in sex-specific recombination patterns. BMC Genomics. ISSN 1471-2164. 12. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-615.
  • Star, Bastiaan; Nederbragt, Alexander Johan; Jentoft, Sissel; Grimholt, Unni; Malmstrøm, Martin & Gregers, Tone Fredsvik [Show all 42 contributors for this article] (2011). The genome sequence of Atlantic cod reveals a unique immune system. Nature. ISSN 0028-0836. 477(7363), p. 207–210. doi: 10.1038/nature10342. Full text in Research Archive
  • Freamo, Heather; O'Reilly, Patrick; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Lien, Sigbjørn & Boulding, Elizabeth G. (2011). Outlier SNPs show more genetic structure between two Bay of Fundy metapopulations of Atlantic salmon than do neutral SNPs. Molecular Ecology Resources. ISSN 1755-098X. 11, p. 254–267. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02952.x.
  • Bourret, Vincent; O'Reilly, Patrick T.; Carr, Jonathan W.; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Bernatchez, Louis (2011). Temporal change in genetic integrity suggests loss of local adaptation in a wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population following introgression by farmed escapees. Heredity. ISSN 0018-067X. 106(3), p. 500–510. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2010.165.
  • Sandve, Simen Rød; Rudi, Heidi; Dørum, Guro; Vigeland, Magnus Dehli; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Rognli, Odd Arne (2010). Genotyping Unknown Genomic Terrain in Complex Plant Genomes. In Huyghe, Christian (Eds.), Sustainable use of Genetic Diversity in Forage and Turf Breeding. Springer Science+Business Media B.V.. ISSN 9789048187058. p. 455–459.
  • Sandve, Simen Rød; Rudi, Heidi; Dørum, Guro; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Rognli, Odd Arne (2010). High-throughput genotyping of unknown genomic terrain in complex plant genomes: lessons from a case study. Molecular breeding. ISSN 1380-3743. 26(4), p. 711–718. doi: 10.1007/s11032-010-9479-0.
  • Heuser, Kjell; Hoddevik, Eystein Hellstrøm; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Indahl, Ulf Geir & Kaczmarek, L [Show all 10 contributors for this article] (2010). Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: A tempting relation but negative genetic association. Seizure. ISSN 1059-1311. 19(6), p. 335–338. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2010.05.003.
  • Heuser, Kjell; Nagelhus, Erlend Arnulf; Taubøll, Erik; Indahl, Ulf Geir; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Lien, Sigbjørn [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2010). Variants of the genes encoding AQP4 and Kir4.1 are associated with subgroups of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Research. ISSN 0920-1211. 88(1), p. 55–64. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2009.09.023.
  • Samulin-Erdem, Johanna Maria; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Sundvold, Hilde; Grindflek, Eli & Lien, Sigbjørn (2009). Expression of DLK1 splice variants during porcine adipocyte development in vitro and in vivo. Animal Genetics. ISSN 0268-9146. 40(2), p. 239–241. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2008.01812.x.
  • Moen, Thomas; Hayes, Ben J.; Nilsen, Frank; Delghandi, M; Fjalestad, Kjersti T & Fevolden, Svein-Erik [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2008). Identification and characterisation of novel SNP markers in Atlantic cod: Evidence for directional selection. BMC Genetics. ISSN 1471-2156. 9.
  • Boulding, EG; Culling, M; Glebe, B; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Lien, Sigbjørn & Moen, Thomas (2008). Conservation genomics of Atlantic salmon: SNPs associated with QTLs for adaptive traits in parr from four trans-Atlantic backcrosses. Heredity. ISSN 0018-067X. 101(4), p. 381–391. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2008.67.
  • Moen, Thomas; Hayes, Ben J.; Baranski, Matthew; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Kjøglum, Sissel & Koop, Ben F. [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2008). A linkage map of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) based on EST-derived SNP markers. BMC Genomics. ISSN 1471-2164. 9. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-223.
  • Hayes, Ben J.; Lien, Sigbjørn; Nilsen, Heidi; Olsen, Hanne Gro; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Maceachern, S. [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2008). The origin of selection signatures on bovine chromosome 6. Animal Genetics. ISSN 0268-9146. 39(2), p. 105–111. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01683.x.
  • Nilsen, Heidi; Hayes, Ben J.; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Roseth, Arne; Sundsaasen, Kristil Kindem & Nilsen, K. [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2008). Construction of a dense SNP map for bovine chromosome 6 to assist the assembly of the bovine genome sequence. Animal Genetics. ISSN 0268-9146. 39(2), p. 97–104. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01686.x.
  • Hayes, Ben J.; Nilsen, Kjetil; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Grindflek, Eli & Lien, Sigbjørn (2007). SNP detection exploiting multiple sources of redundancy in large EST collections improves validation rates. Bioinformatics. ISSN 1367-4803. 23(13), p. 1692–1693.
  • Olsen, Hanne Gro; Nilsen, Heidi; Hayes, Ben J.; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Svendsen, Morten & Lien, Sigbjørn [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2007). Genetic support for a quantitative trait nucleotide in the ABCG2 gene affecting milk composition of dairy cattle. BMC Genetics. ISSN 1471-2156. 8(art. 32), p. 32–40.
  • Martens, Harald; Kohler, Achim; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Wold, Jens-Petter; Hersleth, Margrethe & Berget, Ingunn [Show all 19 contributors for this article] (2007). High-throughput Measurements for Functional Genomics of Milk. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences. ISSN 1230-1388. 16(1).
  • Hayes, Ben J.; Lærdahl, Jon K; Lien, Sigbjørn; Moen, Thomas; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Hindar, Kjetil [Show all 10 contributors for this article] (2007). An extensive resource of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) expressed sequences. Aquaculture. ISSN 0044-8486. 265(1-4), p. 82–90. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.03.018.
  • Hayes, Ben J.; Hagesæther, Nina; Ådnøy, Tormod; Pellerud, Grunde; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Lien, Sigbjørn (2006). Effects on production traits of haplotypes among casein genes in Norwegian goats and evidence for a site of preferential recombination. Genetics. ISSN 0016-6731. 174(September), p. 455–464.
  • Olsen, Hanne Gro; Lien, Sigbjørn; Gautier, Mathieu; Nilsen, Heidi; Roseth, Arne & Berg, Paul Ragnar [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2005). Mapping of a milk production quantitative trait locus to a 420-kb region on bovine chromosome 6. Genetics. ISSN 0016-6731. 169(1), p. 275–283.
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar & Mork, Jarle (2004). Tissue enzyme loci for routine genotyping in Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii Nilsson, 1855): electrophoresis conditions, tissue manifestations, allele designations and basic population genetic parameters. Sarsia. ISSN 0036-4827. 89(6), p. 411–422. doi: 10.1080/00364820410002668.
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar (2003). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from two inbreeding bark beetle species (Coccotrypes). Molecular Ecology Notes. ISSN 1471-8278. 3(2), p. 270–273. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00423.x.

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  • Deininger, Anne; Martin, Angela Helen; Pardo, Juan; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy & de Oliveira Catarino, Diana Sofia [Show all 15 contributors for this article] (2021). Coastal Research Seen Through an Early Career Lens—A Perspective on Barriers to Interdisciplinarity in Norway. Frontiers in Marine Science. ISSN 2296-7745. 8. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.634999. Full text in Research Archive
  • Barth, Julia Maria Isis; Star, Bastiaan; Matschiner, Michael; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd & Jentoft, Sissel (2016). Ancient genomic variation separates Atlantic cod ecotypes; implications for management.
  • Star, Bastiaan; Jentoft, Sissel; Matschiner, Michael; Nederbragt, Alexander Johan; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd & Berg, Paul Ragnar [Show all 12 contributors for this article] (2015). Does historic DNA provide genomic evidence for recent selection in Atlantic cod?
  • Barth, Julia Maria Isis; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Star, Bastiaan; Bonanomi, Sara; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob & Knutsen, Halvor [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2014). A genomic perspective on cod connectivity in the Skagerrak/Kattegat.
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar; Jentoft, Sissel; Star, Bastiaan; Ring, Kristoffer Hofaker; Knutsen, Halvor & Lien, Sigbjørn [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2014). Adaptation to low salinity promotes genomic divergence in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.).
  • Matschiner, Michael; Star, Bastiaan; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Tørresen, Ole Kristian; Nederbragt, Alexander Johan & Hansen, Marianne Helén Selander [Show all 11 contributors for this article] (2014). Population differentiation and local adaptation in Atlantic cod.
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar (2013). Population genomics in Atlantic cod - Baltic vs. North Sea.
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar (2012). Ecological genomics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) - adaptive responses to changing selection regimes.
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar (2012). Populasjonsgenomikk på torsk - et verktøy for identifisering av viktige genomiske regioner for oppdrettsnæringen.
  • Nederbragt, Alexander Johan; Tørresen, Ole Kristian; Khelik, Ksenia; Lagesen, Karin; Rounge, Trine Ballestad & Star, Bastiaan [Show all 13 contributors for this article] (2012). Challenges and Opportunities for Improving the Atlantic Cod Genome Assembly and Annotation.
  • Star, Bastiaan; Nederbragt, Alexander Johan; Jentoft, Sissel; Grimholt, Unni; Malmstrøm, Martin & Gregers, Tone Fredsvik [Show all 18 contributors for this article] (2011). The genome of Atlantic cod reveals a unique immune system.
  • Sandve, Simen Rød; Rudi, Heidi; Dørum, Guro; Vigeland, Magnus D.; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Rognli, Odd Arne (2009). Genotyping unknown genomic terrain in complex plant genomes.
  • Sandve, Simen Rød; Rudi, Heidi; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Fosnes, Kjetil & Rognli, Odd Arne (2009). Genotyping unknown genomic terrain in complex plant genomes.
  • Kent, Matthew Peter; Hayes, Ben J.; Qin, Xiang; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Gibbs, Richard A. & Lien, Sigbjørn (2009). Development Of 16.5K SNP-Chip For Atlantic Salmon.
  • Heuser, Kjell; Nagelhus, Erlend A.; Taubøll, Erik; Indahl, Ulf; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Nakken, S [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2008). DO PATIENTS WITH TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY AND CHILDHOOD FEBRILE SEIZURES CONSTITUTE A GENETIC SUBGROUP? RESULTS FROM AN ASSOCIATION STUDY OF AQUAPORIN-4 AND POTASSIUM CHANNEL GENES. Epilepsia. ISSN 0013-9580. p. 344–344.
  • Gjuvsland, Arne Bjørke; Sundsaasen, Kristil Kindem; Karoliussen, Silje; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Lien, Sigbjørn & Plahte, Erik [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2008). Allele action patterns connect genetic dominance with gene regulatory architecture.
  • Biong, M; Edvardsen, H; Dragseth, V; Berg, PR; Berg, P & Gram, Inger Torhild [Show all 10 contributors for this article] (2008). Genetic markers for the prediction of breast density and breast cancer risk. European Journal of Cancer. ISSN 0959-8049. 6, p. 200–200.
  • Roseth, Arne; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Sundsaasen, Kristil Kindem & Lien, Sigbjørn (2006). CIGENE - a core facility for detection, typing and interpretation of SNPs.
  • Zimonja, Monika; Berget, Ingunn; Martens, Harald; Berg, Paul Ragnar & Lien, Sigbjørn (2005). Chemometrics in MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: More accurate and economical SNP genotyping.
  • Moen, Thomas; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Hayes, Ben J.; Lien, Sigbjørn; Omholt, Stig W. & Våge, Dag Inge (2005). Atlantic salmon research within Centre of Integrative Genetics (CIGENE).
  • Våge, Dag Inge; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Hayes, Ben J.; Høyheim, Bjørn; Lien, Sigbjørn & Moen, Thomas [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2005). CIGENEs rolle i genomforskningen på laks.
  • Berg, Paul Ragnar; Roseth, Arne; Sundsaasen, Kristil Kindem; Lien, Sigbjørn & Omholt, Stig W. (2004). CIGENE-Centre for Integrative Genetics.
  • Rueness, Eli Knispel; Berg, Paul Ragnar; Gulla, Snorre; Halvorsen, Kim Aleksander Tallaksen; Järnegren, Johanna & Malmstrøm, Martin [Show all 19 contributors for this article] (2019). Assessment of the risk to Norwegian biodiversity from import of wrasses and other cleaner fish for use in aquaculture. Opinion of the Panel on Alien Organisms and Trade in Endangered Species of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM). ISSN 978-82-8259-330-4. Full text in Research Archive

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Published July 30, 2018 3:26 PM - Last modified Nov. 8, 2019 12:36 PM