Some explanations for this phenomenon relate to student preparation or academic abilities, which is collectively known as the student deficit model.
My colleagues and I have proposed the course deficit model, whereby instructional decisions exacerbate or minimize gaps in performance, participation, and retention.
I will offer evidence--from my own work and that of others--in support of the course deficit model, in my discussion.
Key to this discussion are the take-home messages that emerge for instructors; critically, many of them are easy to implement!
Further, in this interactive discussion, we will identify and use several in-class assessment techniques.
Finally, I will couch this work in the novel environment of Norwegian Higher Education, with challenges that both resemble and differ from those in Norway.