Sundeep Sahay

Professor - Digitalisation
Image of Sundeep Sahay
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Phone +47 22840073
Room 6463
Postal address Postboks 1080 0316 Oslo

The focus of my work, pursued in external projects and published academically, has been on the design, development, integration, use and sustainability of health information architectures in developing countries, with a primary focus in the Indian public health system. Further, a focus is to create organizational models which can provide technical support and make systems sustainable and scalable in various countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

My academic work is empirically grounded primarily within an action research framework working closely with public health managers, policy makers, health programme managers and field level health functionaries. I have an extensive experience with management of research projects involving partners from universities, public health sector, and also running an NGO. Currently I am supervising 10 PhD students and was principal supervisor for more than 10 PhD students in the past.

Key areas of interest:

  • Integrated health information architectures within a social systems perspective
  • Standardization processes of technology and work practices in public health
  • Integration strategies for portfolios of health information systems and the underlying platforms such as web based, offline, paper, and mobile based
  • Processes of institutionalization of health information systems and related processes
  • Enabling processes of networking within south-south-north universities, researchers, and practitioners
  • Building capacity around free and open source software applications for the public health sector within the domain of developing countries

Some concrete findings from my research over the years have been:

Integration as a political challenge
Historically, in India and in most other countries, health programme data are reported through channels independent of the routine district systems. This creates various duplications, overlaps and also gaps. In the action perspective we have, we approach the integration challenge in a gradual and incremental manner in firstly designing integrated formats, participating in orienting and training to these forms in a manner where the institutional legacies are gradually addressed. Political aspects of integration are notoriously hard to overcome, even when technical solutions are available.

Scaling is more than about numbers
Scaling has often been treated as a mechanical exercise of about increasing numbers and geography. My empirical engagement over the years points to the learning that scaling should be treated as scaling of design principles and processes, rather than of boxes. A guiding principle here is scaling is most about managing complexity. Scaling is an ongoing process because as the systems and use scales, user demands and needs also expand. There must be then processes in place where there is a clear, iterative and agile process of managing design, development and use where scaling is inbuilt not an afterthought.

An architecture approach provides a basis for “good design”
A health information architecture should not be viewed as an end-solution – as there is nothing like a perfect architecture – and should merely be seen as an approach to manage complexity. An architecture should be regarded as a process tool, which at any point would represent the current understanding and knowledge, which by definition will be inadequate and incomplete, and while at the same time should enable the incorporation of new developments. The point of departure, thus, is to conceptualize architecture as a verb – a collective; always in the making - rather than a noun; representing an end solution. The concept of architecture provides a map or compass and a form of direction for “good” design of the overall integrated HIA, as well as, the phased implementation of its various sub-systems.

The fundamental importance of a social systems perspective to health information systems
The health system comprises of many thousands of health workers, engaged in routine collecting, registering, collating, and reporting of data in a large number of formats. Data and information are analyzed and used in a variety of ways by different people, to make informed decisions and to improve health services delivery. These represent “good” ways of applying information, or to only collect data to legitimate various positions, as some would claim. Since HISs are deeply embedded in the socially shaped work practices of staff in the health system, they can be seen as being barely separable from the social context of which, they are a part. Seen from this perspective, HIS are conceptualized as “human activity systems,” involving multiple activities around the HIS, constituting important parts of the institutional structures in health organizations. Such routine work and repetitive activities across time and space have regularizing consequences, including unintended ones by those engaged in the activities.

Selected publications

Braa, Jørn and Sahay, Sundeep (2012). Integrated health information architecture: power for the users : design development and use. New Dehli : Matrix Publishing. ISBN: 978-93-81320-06-8

Braa, Jørn; Heywood, Arthur; Sahay, Sundeep (2012) Improving quality and use of data through data-use workshops: Zanzibar's experience. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Volume 90, 5, pp. 376-381.

Braa, Jørn; Monteiro, Eric; Sahay, Sundeep. (2004). Networks of action: sustainable health information systems across developing countries. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 28, 3, pp. 337-362

Sahay, Sundeep, Nicholson, Brian, Krishna, Srinavas. (2003) Global IT Outsourcing: Software Development Across Borders, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Walsham, Geoff and Sahay, Sundeep. (1998). GIS technology for district administration in India: some problems and opportunities, MIS Quarterly, 23, 1, pp. 39-66

Sahay, Sundeep. (1997). Information systems in organizations: A time-space perspective. Organization Studies, 18, 2, pp. 229-260

Robey, Daniel and Sahay, Sundeep. (1996). Transforming work through information technology: A comparative case study of geographic information systems in county government. Information Systems Research, 7, 1, pp. 93-110

Sahay, Sundeep. and Robey, Daniel. (1996). Organizational context, social interpretation, and the implementation and Consequences of Geographic Information Systems. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 6, 4, pp. 255-282


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  • Mukherjee, Arunima Sehgal; Kolås, Åshild & Sahay, Sundeep (2021). Digital Identity, Surveillance and Vaccination.
  • Nielsen, Petter & Sahay, Sundeep (2019). Critically studying openness: A way forward. Information Systems Journal. ISSN 1350-1917. 29(4), p. 763–767. doi: 10.1111/isj.12236.
  • Nielsen, Petter & Sahay, Sundeep (2019). Critically studying openness: A way forward. Information Systems Journal. ISSN 1350-1917. 29(4), p. 763–767. doi: 10.1111/isj.12236.
  • Zheng, Yingqin; Hatakka, Mathias; Sahay, Sundeep & Andersson, Annika (2018). Conceptualizing development in information and communication technology for development (ICT4D). Information Technology for Development. ISSN 0268-1102. 24(1), p. 1–14. doi: 10.1080/02681102.2017.1396020.
  • Sahay, Sundeep; Nielsen, Petter; Faujdar, Dharamjeet; Kumar, Rajesh & Mukherjee, Arunima Sehgal (2018). Frugal Digital Innovation and Living Labs: A Case Study of Innovation in Public Health in India.
  • Negash, Selemon; Musa, Philip; Vogel, Douglas R. & Sahay, Sundeep (2018). Healthcare information technology for development: improvements in people's lives through innovations in the uses of technologies. Information Technology for Development. ISSN 0268-1102. 24(2), p. 189–197. doi: 10.1080/02681102.2018.1422477.
  • Kumar, Rajesh & Sahay, Sundeep (2018). BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making Public Health Information Systems in India: Need for a sustainable Patient centric system for Primary Health Care.
  • Kumar, Rajesh; Singh Faudjdar, Dharamjeet; Singh, Tarundeep & Sahay, Sundeep (2018). Integrated IT based Information system for Primary Health Care: Creating path for Universal health coverage.
  • Kumar, Rajesh; Singh Faudjdar, Dharamjeet & Sahay, Sundeep (2018). A living lab based design strategy for ICT-based solutions for primary health care: Case study from India .
  • Nicholson, Brian; Sahay, Sundeep & Heeks, Richard (2018). Global sourcing and development: New drivers, models, and impacts. Information Systems Journal. ISSN 1350-1917. 28(3), p. 532–537. doi: 10.1111/isj.12188.
  • Nielsen, Petter; Sahay, Sundeep & Latifov, Murodillo Abdusamadovich (2015). Civil Registration and Vital Statistics: A Neglected area in Information Systems Research.
  • Sæbø, Johan Ivar; Kossi, Edem Kwame; Sahay, Sundeep & Braa, Jørn (2012). A regional approach to Health Information Systems strengthening: Policies and capacity building in West Africa.
  • Gizaw, Abyot Asalefew; Mukherjee, Arunima Sehgal; Lewis, John & Sahay, Sundeep (2012). UNDERSTANDING DESIGN-USE INTERACTION: THE CASE OF NAME BASED HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM IN INDIA.
  • Sæbø, Johan Ivar; Sahay, Sundeep; Braa, Jørn; Kossi, Edem Kwame & Settle, Dykki (2011). Networks of Networks - Collaborative Efforts to Develop Health Information Systems Across Developing Countries.
  • Latifov, Murodillo Abdusamadovich; Mukherjee, Arunima; Chakravarthy, Vasudha & Sahay, Sundeep (2011). PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO DESIGNING STANDARDS: THE CASE OF A DISTRICT HOSPITAL INFORMATION SYSTEM IN NORTHERN INDIA. Full text in Research Archive
  • Sahay, Sundeep; Purkayastha, Saptarshi & Mukherjee, Arunima (2010). Exploring the potential and challenges of using mobile based technology in strengthening health information systems: Experiences from a pilot study.
  • Sahay, Sundeep & Lewis, John (2009). Challenges and Approaches in Moving from Data to Information to Knowledge: Case Study from the Gujarat State Health System India.
  • Sahay, Sundeep & Latifov, Murodillo Abdusamadovich (2009). The Data To Indicator (Mis)Match: Experiences From Trying To Strengthen This Link In The Health Information System In Tajikistan.
  • C.R, Ranjini; Sahay, Sundeep & Lewis, John (2009). The Informational Challenge is Achieveing Maternal Mortality Goal MDG5: An Analysis From India.
  • Mekonnen, Selamawit; Sahay, Sundeep & Lewis, John (2009). The role of Social Capital in the Integration of Health Information Systems.
  • Sæbø, Johan Ivar; Sahay, Sundeep; Mekonnen, Selamawit & Gizaw, Abyot Asalefew (2009). Interplay of Institutional logics and Implications for Deinstitutionalization: Case Study of HMIS Implementation in Tajikistan.
  • Walsham, Geoff; Robey, D & Sahay, Sundeep (2007). Foreword: Special issue on information systems in developing countries. MIS Quarterly. ISSN 0276-7783. 31.
  • Sahay, Sundeep; Monteiro, Eric & Aanestad, Margunn (2007). Towards a Political Perspective of Integration in IS Research: the case of Health Information Systems in India.
  • Braa, Jørn; Monteiro, Eric; Sahay, Sundeep; Staring, Knut & titlestad, ola (2007). Scaling up local learning – experiences from south-south-north networks of shared software development.
  • Sahay, Sundeep; Monteiro, Eric & Aanestad, M (2007). Towards a Political Perspective of Integration in IS Research: the case of Health Information Systems in India.
  • Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc & Sahay, Sundeep (2018). Design Principles for Health Information Infrastructures in Developing Countries. Universitetet i Oslo. Full text in Research Archive
  • Hewapathirana, Roshan & Sahay, Sundeep (2017). FOSS as a Platform Ecosystem: Understanding governance of open source HIS implementation in a Low and Middle Income Country context. Universitetet i Oslo. Full text in Research Archive
  • Braa, Jørn; Sahay, Sundeep; Kossi, Edem Kwame & Mbondji, Peter (2012). ECOWAS Health Information Systems Policy and Strategy Document. West African Health Organization.
  • Braa, Jørn; Sahay, Sundeep; Kossi, Edem Kwame & Mbondji, Peter (2012). Situation Assessment of Health Information Systems in the ECOWAS Region. West African Health Organization.
  • Sahay, Sundeep (2008). The Dynamics of Corruption and ICT projects:Case Study from the Public Health System in India, International Conference on Information Systems. Conference on Information Systems .
  • Braa, Jørn; Monteiro, Eric; Sahay, Sundeep; Staring, Knut & Titlestad, Ola Hodne (2007). Scaling up local learning – experiences from South-South-North networks of shared software development. Proceedings of IFIP WG 9.4 9th international conference "Taking Stock of E-Development".

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Published Nov. 4, 2010 2:16 PM - Last modified Feb. 15, 2021 2:27 PM