Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500–1250 CE (VIKINGS)

Photos: Volcano eruption Sarychev Peak/Wikipedia, The Oseberg ship/Norway: Kirstin Krüger/UiO and the VIKINGS project logo.

Credits: Sarychev Peak Volcano/Wikipedia | The Oseberg ship: Kirstin Krüger/UiO

About the project

This multi-disciplinary project aims to understand the role of volcanic eruptions and climate change in shaping the early history of Europe. The period 500-1250 CE is characterized by natural disasters, societal unrest, Viking expansion, emerging kingship - and large volcanic eruptions evidenced by geochemical markers in natural archives. At present, we know little about the climate variations in Europe and especially in Scandinavia during this period.

The VIKINGS project seeks to reveal the climate of the early historic period, and resolve how volcanic eruptions and their environmental impacts facilitated societal changes during the Viking era.

Objectives

To advance the knowledge and understanding of major volcanic eruptions effects on climate, environment, and society in Scandinavia and Europe at the dawn of the Middle Ages.

Background

Large volcanic eruptions are the major drivers of natural climate variability in the pre-industrial era of the last millennium. They are thought to have triggered the onset of the Little Ice Age (end of 13th century) sustained by sea‐ice/ocean feedbacks. Only recently, new high resolution ice core records led to a rewriting of the volcanic eruption history of the past 2500 years. In particular, previous ice-core volcanic sulphur records before ~1200 CE have been deemed as incorrectly dated and insufficiently synchronized, leading to an overall unreliable history of volcanic forcing. Thus, less is known about the climate effects of large volcanic eruptions during the first millennium. In this project we will analyse new and available model data, proxy and archaeological records in Scandinavia which will enable us to uniquely interpret the climate, environment, and society response of major volcanic eruptions during the Early and High Middle Ages (500-1250 CE) within the Vikings period.

Financing

The VIKINGS project is financed as a Ground-breaking research (tidligere FRIPRO) project by the Research Council of Norway and the University of Oslo (project number 275191). The project period is from 1 of July 2018 until 30 of June 2023.

Full project name is Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500–1250 CE (VIKINGS).

Cooperation

Publications

  • Steinar Solheim & Frode Iversen (2019). The mid-6th century crises and their impacts on human activity and settlements in southeastern Norway, In Niall Brady & Claudia Theune (ed.),  SETTLEMENT CHANGE ACROSS MEDIEVAL EUROPE OLD PARADIGMS AND NEW VISTAS.  Sidestone Press.  ISBN 978-90-8890-806-4.  The mid-6thcentury crises....  s 423 - 434
  • Matthew Toohey; Kirstin Krüger; Hauke Schmidt; Claudia Timmreck; Michael Sigl; Markus Stoffel & Rob Wilson (2019). Disproportionately strong climate forcing from extratropical explosive volcanic eruptions. Nature Geoscience.  ISSN 1752-0894.  12, s 100- 107
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). The prime movers of iron production in the Norwegian Viking and Middle Ages. Fornvännen.  ISSN 0015-7813.  2019, s 75- 87
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). Ferd og frakt over fjell og vidde. Primitive tider.  ISSN 1501-0430.  21, s 7- 23
  • Ingar Mørkestøl Gundersen (2019). The Fimbulwinter theory and the 6th century crisis in the light of Norwegian archaeology: Towards a human-environmental approach. Primitive tider.  ISSN 1501-0430.  21, s 101- 119

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  • Zhihong Zhuo; Herman Fuglestvedt; Matthew Toohey; Michael J. Mills & Kirstin Krüger (2021). Model comparison of volcanic aerosol forcing and climate impact of tropical and extratropical eruptions.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Helge I. Høeg; Jostein Bakke; Eivind N. Støren; Kjetil Loftsgarden; Frode Iversen; William Martin Hagopian; Anne Hope Jahren; Henrik Hovland Svensen & Kirstin Krüger (2021). Instability or adaptation of the pre-Viking society to the climate variability of the Late Antiquity?.
  • Herman Fuglestvedt; Kirstin Krüger; Zhihong Zhuo; Michael Sigl; Matthew Toohey & Michael J. Mills (2021). Modelling high-latitude explosive eruptions and their atmospheric and environmental impacts.
  • Kirstin Krüger (2020). Volcanic Eruptins and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE.
  • Evelien Jacoba Cornelia Van Dijk & Kirstin Krüger (2020). Impact of the 536/540 CE double eruption event on the 6th -7th century climate using model and proxy data.
  • Evelien Jacoba Cornelia Van Dijk & Kirstin Krüger (2020). Impact of the 536/540 CE double volcanic eruption event on the 6th-7th century climate using model and proxy data.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard (2020). The hidden face of lakes: how natural archives bring us back to the Viking Age and beyond.
  • Evelien Jacoba Cornelia Van Dijk & Kirstin Krüger (2020). The impact of the 536/540 CE double volcanic eruption event on the climate.
  • Herman Fuglestvedt & Krüger Kirstin (2020). Modelling the Atmospheric Forcing of High-Latitude Volcanic Eruptions.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren; Jostein Bakke; Helge Irgens Høeg; Kjetil Loftsgarden; Frode Iversen; Henrik Svensen & Kirstin Krüger (2020). Tracing socio-environmental dynamics and climate changes in the period 300-1300 CE in Scandinavia from lake sediments.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren; Jostein Bakke; Helge Irgens Høeg; Kjetil Loftsgarden; Frode Iversen; Anne Karin Hufthammer & Kirstin Krüger (2020). Record of climate and environmental changes in a dead-ice lake close to Gardermoen told by a 10 000 years old freshwater fish and a Viking King.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren; Jostein Bakke; Helge Irgens Høeg; Kjetil Loftsgarden; Frode Iversen & Kirstin Krüger (2020). Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2020). How many Vikings were there? The population of Western Scandinavia 400–1000.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2020). The population of Western Scandinavia 400–1000 AD.
  •  (2020). Finner tegn til ekte fimbulvinter.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2020). Ferd og frakt over fjell og vidde. Forskning.no.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2020). I vikingtida stod innlandet for ein enorm jernproduksjon. Forskning.no.
  • Kirstin Krüger (2019). Working Group Overview.
  • Evelien Jacoba Cornelia Van Dijk (2019). The impact of the double volcanic eruption event 536/540 CE on the climate.
  • Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Jostein Bakke & Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren (2019). Reconstructing climate and socio-environmental changes using lake sediments.
  • Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Jostein Bakke & Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren (2019). Reconstructing climate and socio-environmental changes using lake sediments.
  • Kirstin Krüger (2019). Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). Hestekamp og handel i vikingtid og middelalder’.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Ballo Eirik; Bakke Jostein; Støren Eivind; Høeg Helge; Iversen Frode; Svensen Henrik & Krüger Kirstin (2019). Socio-environmental dynamics and volcanic eruptions in the 500-1250 CE period in Scandinavia: new sight in Lake Ljøgottjern sediment sequence.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Ballo Eirik; Bakke Jostein; Støren Eivind; Høeg Helge; Iversen Frode; Svensen Henrik & Krüger Kirstin (2019). Socio-environmental dynamics and volcanic eruptions in the 500-1250 CE period in Scandinavia: new sight in Lake Ljøgottjern sediment sequence.
  • Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren; Jostein Bakke & Henrik Svensen (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and the Viking age.
  • Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren; Jostein Bakke & Henrik Svensen (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and Viking age.
  • Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren; Jostein Bakke & Henrik Svensen (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and Viking age.
  • Kirstin Krüger & Manon Julietto Andree Bajard (2019). Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard & Ballo Eirik (2019). First insight in Norwegian sedimentary archives.
  • Joshua Neilson Bostic; William Martin Hagopian; Henrik Svensen & Anne Hope Jahren (2019). Predicting seasonal climate using intra-ring stable isotope analysis.
  • Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren; Jostein Bakke & Henrik Svensen (2019). High-resolution lacustrine records of environmental changes in Scandinavia: a focus on the Migration period and Viking age.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). Mass production and marketplaces from the late Viking Age.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). Vikingar og vulkaner. Klima og samfunnsutvikling 536–1250.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). VIKINGS project.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). The production of iron at seasonal settlements in the Norwegian mountains.
  • Kirstin Krüger; Michael Sigl; Matthey Toohey & Frode Iversen (2019). Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). Store og små vestnorske marknadsplassar.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). The demography of the Viking Age or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Big Data.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). It's Iron ore it's nothing!.
  • Kjetil Loftsgarden (2019). Skeid.
  • Eirik Magnus Gottschalk Ballo; Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Jostein Bakke & Eivind Wilhelm Nagel Støren (2019). Reconstructing climate and socio-environmental changes using lake sediments.
  • Ingar Mørkestøl Gundersen & Joshua Neilson Bostic (2018). The Fimbulwinter of AD 536-538: Crisis, adaptation or decline?.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard & Krüger Kirstin (2018). VIKINGS Project Volcanic Eruptions and their Impacts on Climate, Environment, and Viking Society in 500-1250 CE.
  • Manon Julietto Andree Bajard; Ballo Eirik; Svensen Henrik; Høeg Helge; Iversen Frode; Bakke Jostein & Krüger Kirstin (2018). Norwegian lakes and what they can tell us about the Vikings.
  •  (2018). Realfag og historie, vikingene sett i lys endringer av klima.
  •  (2018). Vulkanutbrudd og klimaendringer, hva betydde det for vikingene?.

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Published Jan. 25, 2019 2:43 PM - Last modified May 20, 2021 7:14 PM