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EMERALD – Terrestrial ecosystem–climate interactions of our EMERALD planet

EMERALD is an interdisciplinary and nationally coordinated research project. Emerald will improve the representation of high latitude ecosystems and their climate interactions in The Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) by integrating empirical data and knowledge in model development.

The spring green mountain slopes in Briksdalen, in the Western part of Norway. Photo: Colourbox/Alexander Nikiforov.

The spring green mountain slopes in Briksdalen, in the Western part of Norway. Photo: Colourbox/Alexander Nikiforov.

The EMERALD project focuses on the role of vegetation in the climate system. Plants have changed the history of our 'Emerald Planet', they “regulate the cycling of carbon dioxide and water, influence the rate at which rocks erode, adjust the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and affect how the landscape absorbs or reflects sunlight.”; from the book: The emerald planet, David Beerling, 2007.
Vegetation thus shape and is shaped by the atmosphere, soils, and the hydrological cycle. 

Professors Lena M. Tallaksen and Frode Stordal with the book 'The Emerald Planet' (David Beerling/2007) wich was a inspiration for choosing the name of the Research Project. Photo: Terje Koren Berntsen/UiO
Professors Lena M. Tallaksen & Frode Stordal with the book 'The Emerald Planet' (Beerling/2007) which was a inspiration for the name of the research project. Photo: Terje K. Berntsen/UiO

Read the popular scientific presentation of EMERALD in English or Norwegian.

In particular, we aim to improve the understanding of high latitude ecosystem processes and their representation in global climate models. Our focus is on boreal and arctic ecosystems, such as evergreen trees, deciduous trees, shrubs, mosses, and lichens. We will primarily work on the land module in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). Current climate models lack a good description of vegetation and land surface processes at high latitudes. We will advance the land module in NorESM, using data and knowledge from field-based ecosystem research. Our long-term goal is to improve the projections of climate change for our northern regions.

EMERALD will integrate, structure and develop a highly interdisciplinary field of research by linking research groups using field observations, experiments and modelling. We conduct fieldwork and field experiments at Finse in western Norway, Finnmark in northern Norway, and on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Lab experiments will mainly be done in Oslo.

We will communicate our results to the public and to our stakeholders. This will be done for example through the Norwegian Centre for Climate Services and The Climate House, Natural History Museum, UiO.

Research objectives

EMERALD will improve the representation of high latitude ecosystems and their climate interactions in the NorESM model by integrating data and knowledge from empirical ecosystem research. We aim to become the leading terrestrial modelling group in Norway, by integrating and consolidating research on ecosystem–climate interactions and feedbacks. In line with the book “The Emerald Planet”, Beerling, 2007 lend EMERALD its name, we place vegetation in the centre.

We aim to advance the representation of high latitude terrestrial ecosystems, by offering new parameterisations and structural updates to improve current land surface schemes. This will yield significant improvements in NorESM, including terrestrial ecosystems impacts and feedbacks. As such, EMERALD serves the societal need for improved climate change projections.

Approach

EMERALD will integrate existing activities among key partners and provide added value through critical mass, joint field work and experiments, coordinated modelling efforts and novel approaches. We will review the existing parameterisations across a variety of scales. We will integrate and expand existing national or international research and observation systems. Doing so, EMERALD facilitates improves the use of data and observations, and ultimately the implementation of critical processes in NorESM.

To achieve the objectives, the project is organised into tightly interlinked work packages. There are four work packages (WP),for more information see own web page.

  • Land surface model evaluation and improvement–WP1
  • Improved process understanding from observations and experiments–WP2
  • Implementation in NorESM and quantification of feedbacks–WP3
  • Dissemination and communication–WP4

Financing

EMERALD represents a big leap ahead for Norwegian research on terrestrial ecosystems–climate interactions. The 30 MNOK funding releases 21 MNOK in-kind contributions, notably from LATICE, and another 38 MNOK (21 and 17 MNOK PhD/postdoc labour and field work, respectively) is available through synergy and efficient collaboration. These synergy projects are mainly from two ERC grants and ongoing RCN funded projects. In total, 89 MNOK will be utilised to study terrestrial ecosystems–climate interactions in Norway.

Funding from the KLIMAFORSK program, NFR project number 294948 (2019-2022).

Cooperation

The EMERALD project is carried out in cooperation with researchers from different institutions: 

See list of participating researchers.

Our researchers have a big portfolio of affiliated projects that inform and support our efforts in EMERALD:

Overview of involved institutions and affiliated research projects.

Publications

 

    • Frost, G.V.; Macander, M.J.; Bhatt, U.S.; Epstein, H.E.; Berner, L.T. & Bjerke, Jarle W. [Show all 13 contributors for this article] (2021). Tundra greenness. In Blunden, Jessica & Boyer, Tim (Ed.), State of the Climate in 2020. American Meteorological Society. ISSN 0003-0007. p. S297–S299. doi: https%3A/doi.org/10.1175/2021BAMSStateoftheClimate.1.
    • Horvath, Peter; Tang, Hui; Halvorsen, Rune; Stordal, Frode; Tallaksen, Lena M. & Berntsen, Terje Koren [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2021). Improving the representation of high-latitude vegetation distribution in dynamic global vegetation models. Biogeosciences. ISSN 1726-4170. 18, p. 95–112. doi: 10.5194/bg-18-95-2021. Full text in Research Archive
    • Falk, Stefanie; Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Eriksen, Aud Else Berglen; Emberson, Lisa D.; O’Neill, Connie & Stordal, Frode [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2021). Parameterization of the responses of subarctic European vegetation to key environmental variables for ozone risk assessment. Biogeosciences. ISSN 1726-4170.
    • Falk, Stefanie; Vollsnes, Ane V.; Eriksen, Aud B.; Stordal, Frode & Berntsen, Terje Koren (2021). Technical note: Quality assessment of ozone reanalysis products and gap-filling over subarctic Europe for vegetation risk mapping. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). ISSN 1680-7316. 21(20), p. 15647–15661. doi: 10.5194/acp-21-15647-2021.
    • Riihelä, Aku; Bright, Ryan M. & Anttila, Kati (2021). Recent strengthening of snow and ice albedo feedback driven by Antarctic sea-ice loss. Nature Geoscience. ISSN 1752-0894. 14, p. 832–836. doi: 10.1038/s41561-021-00841-x.
    • Ardeshiri, Hamidreza; Cassiani, Massimo; Park, Soon-Young; Stohl, Andreas; Pisso, Ignacio & Dinger, Anna Solvejg (2020). On the Convergence and Capability of the Large-Eddy Simulation of Concentration Fluctuations in Passive Plumes for a Neutral Boundary Layer at Infinite Reynolds Number. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. ISSN 0006-8314. 176, p. 291–327. doi: 10.1007/s10546-020-00537-6. Full text in Research Archive
    • Frost, G.V.; Bhatt, U.S.; Epstein, Howard E.; Berner, L.T.; Bjerke, Jarle W. & Forbes, B.C. [Show all 13 contributors for this article] (2020). Tundra greenness. In Blunden, J. & Arndt, D.S. (Ed.), State of the Climate in 2019. American Meteorological Society. ISSN 0003-0007. p. S272–S274. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0086.1.
    • Cai, Lei; Lee, Hanna; Aas, Kjetil Schanke & Westermann, Sebastian (2020). Projecting circum-Arctic excess-ground-ice melt with a sub-grid representation in the Community Land Model. The Cryosphere. ISSN 1994-0416. 14( 12), p. 4611–4626. doi: 10.5194/tc-14-4611-2020. Full text in Research Archive
    • Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Kerby, Jeffrey T.; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Epstein, Howard E. & Assmann, Jakob J. [Show all 41 contributors for this article] (2020). Complexity revealed in the greening of the Arctic. Nature Climate Change. ISSN 1758-678X. 10(2), p. 106–117. doi: 10.1038/s41558-019-0688-1. Full text in Research Archive
    • Kumkar, Yogesh; Astrup, Rasmus Andreas; Stordal, Frode & Bright, Ryan M. (2020). Quantifying regional surface energy responses to forest structural change in Nordic Fennoscandia. Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR): Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-897X. 125(15). doi: 10.1029/2019JD032092. Full text in Research Archive
    • De Boeck, Hans J.; Bloor, Juliette M. G.; Aerts, Rien; Bahn, Michael; Beier, Claus & Emmett, Bridget A. [Show all 24 contributors for this article] (2020). Understanding ecosystems of the future will require more than realistic climate change experiments – a response to Korell et al. Global Change Biology. ISSN 1354-1013. 26(2), p. e6–e7. doi: 10.1111/gcb.14854.

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    • Skarpaas, Olav (2021). Klimaendringer og vegetasjon i vinterlandet.
    • Gullvåg, Rebekka; Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Bryn, Anders; Brysting, Anne Krag & Vatne, Astrid (2021). Effects of high-latitude light conditions on stomatal conductance and photosynthesis in white clover (Trifolium repens) .
    • Falk, Stefanie (2021). Skogplanting og framtidas by. Forskning.no. ISSN 1891-635X.
    • Keetz, Lasse Torben; Bryn, Anders; Horvath, Peter; Skarpaas, Olav; Tallaksen, Lena M. & Zliobaite, Indre (2021). Using machine learning to model the distribution of Vegetation Types across Norway.
    • Geange, Sonya Rita (2021). NorESM land sites platform: A collaborative effort to better represent high-latitude systems in earth models.
    • Geange, Sonya Rita (2021). Bridging earth system modelling and ecological insights: a model platform for the functionally assembled terrestrial ecosystem simulator with community land model (CLM-FATES).
    • Tang, Hui; Aas, Kjetil Schanke; Finne, Eirik Aasmo; Althuizen, Inge; Fisher, Rosie A. & Tømmervik, Hans [Show all 14 contributors for this article] (2021). The impact of moss and lichen on hydrological cycle at surface: a study using CLM-FATES.
    • Nilsen, Irene Brox; Dalen, Thea Grobstok & Bryn, Anders (2021). Vil du være med og registrere tregrensa i sommer? www.forskning.no.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Ny 2000 metertopp under Glittertind har smeltet fram. [TV]. NrK Dagsrevyen.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Naturen er i endring.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Om folkedugnaden “Natur i endring”.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Tankevekkjande utstilling i Lom. [Newspaper]. Fjuken.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Varmare klima gav Glittertind ny lillebror. [Internet]. NrK nettavis.
    • Bryn, Anders; Dalen, Thea Grobstok; Finne, Eirik Aasmo; Heiberg, Hanne; Keetz, Lasse Torben & Nilsen, Irene Brox [Show all 30 contributors for this article] (2021). Natur i endring - samspillet mellom klima og økosystemene.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Wetlands and carbon in Norway.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Ny utstilling om klima og natur ved Norsk Fjellsenter.
    • Bryn, Anders (2021). Paradokser om natur og klima.
    • Falk, Stefanie; Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Emberson, Lisa D.; O'Neill, Connie; Eriksen, Aud E Berglen & Stordal, Frode [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2021). Characterizing subarctic biomes for land surface modeling of pollution and climate risk.
    • Falk, Stefanie; Lombardozzi, Danica; Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Stordal, Frode; Berntsen, Terje Koren & Eriksen, Aud Else Berglen (2021). OzoneLUNA: Ozone damage in CLM revisited.
    • Falk, Stefanie; Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Eriksen, Aud E Berglen; Emberson, Lisa D.; O'Neill, Connie & Stordal, Frode [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2021). Charakterisierung der subarktischen Ökozone hinsichtlich der Modellierung von Ozonverschmutzung und Klimarisiken.
    • Yilmaz, Yeliz A.; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Filhol, Simon; Gascoin, Simon; Stordal, Frode & Tallaksen, Lena M. (2021). Probing Fennoscandian Snow Cover Dynamics in the Community Land Model and Climate Reanalyses during the Satellite Era.
    • Yilmaz, Yeliz A.; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Filhol, Simon; Gascoin, Simon; Stordal, Frode & Tallaksen, Lena M. (2021). Benchmarking CLM5 snow cover dynamics with MODIS and reanalyses over Fennoscandia .
    • Althuizen, Inge; Christiansen, Casper Tai; Dörsch, Peter; Kjær, Sigrid Trier; Michelsen, Anders & Risk, David [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2021). Abrupt thaw enhances annual global warming potential of an actively degrading permafrost peatland.
    • Althuizen, Inge; Christiansen, Casper Tai; Michelsen, Anders; Westermann, Sebastian; Pirk, Norbert & Risk, David [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2021). Annual ecosystem carbon budgets across an abrupt permafrost thaw gradient in Northern Norway .
    • Althuizen, Inge; Christiansen, Casper Tai; Michelsen, Anders; Dörsch, Peter; Kjær, Sigrid Trier & Westermann, Sebastian [Show all 8 contributors for this article] (2021). Annual ecosystem carbon budgets across an abrupt permafrost thaw gradient in Northern Norway .
    • Aas, Kjetil Schanke (2021). Explicit representation of sub-grid snow and vegetation heterogeneity in a land surface model.
    • Gelati, Emiliano; Yilmaz, Yeliz A.; Bakke, Sigrid Jørgensen & Tallaksen, Lena M. (2021). ​Community Land Model v5 runoff evaluation in small near-natural catchments in Fennoscandia.
    • Gelati, Emiliano; Yilmaz, Yeliz; Bakke, Sigrid Jørgensen & Tallaksen, Lena Merete (2021). Community Land Model v5 runoff evaluation in small near-natural catchments in Fennoscandia.
    • Vandvik, Vigdis; Gya, Ragnhild; Haugum, Siri Vatsø; Althuizen, Inge & Lee, Hanna (2021). Norsk hosepine. [TV]. https://tv.nrk.no/program/KOID75006420.
    • Lee, Hanna (2021). Ikke bare-bare å plante skog (blogg.forskning.no - Søkelys på skogplantning [Internet]).
    • Lee, Hanna (2021). Noe å tenke over når man skal plante trær (blogg.forskning.no - Søkelys på skogplantning [Internet]).
    • Bright, Ryan M. (2021). Hva betyr skogplanting i Norge? Forskning.no. ISSN 1891-635X.
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. & Markusson, Helge M. (2021). Arktis blir stadig grønnere. [Internet]. forskning.no.
    • Aas, Elin Cecilie Ristorp (2021). Livet under jorden. blogg.forskning.no - Søkelys på skogplantning [Internet].
    • Finne, Eirik Aasmo (2021). Variation in albedo along gradients of reindeer grazing intensity in Arctic, alpine and boreal regions.
    • Skarpaas, Olav (2021). Hva er en naturlig skog? blogg.forskning.no- søkelys på skogplantning.
    • Narayanappa, Devaraju; Nilsen, Irene Brox & Falk, Stefanie (2021). Avskoging og den indiske monsunen ("Deforestation and the indian monsoon"). blogg.forskning.no- søkelys på skogplantning.
    • Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Falk, Stefanie; Berglen eriksen, Aud; Emberson, Lisa D.; O’Neill, Connie & Stordal, Frode [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2021). Model parameterisation of subarctic vegetation in climate models, an example from an ozone effect study.
    • Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Stordal, Frode; Falk, Stefanie; Eriksen, Aud Berglen; Kauserud, Håvard & Berntsen, Terje Koren (2021). Field and lab experiments, plant ecophysiology starting from The double punch.
    • Finne, Eirik Aasmo (2021). Ground lichen and mosses tolerant of winter warming and ice encapsulation .
    • Tømmervik, Hans; Nilsen, Lennart; Erlandsson, Rasmus; Finne, Eirik Aasmo & Bjerke, Jarle W. (2021). The Vanishing White (VANWHITE) Airborne Remote Sensing campaign Svalbard II 2021.
    • Błaszczyk, Małgorzata; Luks, Bartłomiej ł.; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Tømmervik, Hans; Łepkowska, Elżbieta & Jania, Jacek A. [Show all 11 contributors for this article] (2020). Airborne Remote Sensing in South Of Spitsbergen (current evolution of polar environment) AirborneSOS.
    • Tømmervik, Hans; Bjerke, Jarle W. & Nilsen, Lennart (2020). The Vanishing White (VANWHITE) - Airborne Remote Sensing campaign Svalbard 2020 .
    • Yilmaz, Yeliz A.; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Filhol, Simon Vincent P; Stordal, Frode & Tallaksen, Lena M. (2020). Scandinavian snow cover phenology from MODIS, CLM, and reanalyses.
    • Yilmaz, Yeliz A.; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Filhol, Simon Vincent P; Stordal, Frode & Tallaksen, Lena M. (2020). Fennoscandian snow cover phenology from MODIS, CLM5, and climate reanalyses.
    • Yilmaz, Yeliz A.; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Filhol, Simon Vincent P; Stordal, Frode & Tallaksen, Lena M. (2020). The Representation of the Fennoscandian Snow Cover Phenology in Reanalyses and CLM5 during the MODIS-era.
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. (2020). The changing and greener Arctic.
    • Stordal, Frode (2020). Dissolved organic matter: From atmosphere to rivers and lakes.
    • Vandvik, Vigdis & Bjune, Anne Elisabeth (2020). Det våres, og plantene våkner til liv. Hva er plantenes rolle i klimasystemet? [Radio]. Bjerknessenterets klimapod.
    • Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Falk, Stefanie; Eriksen, Aud Else Berglen; Stordal, Frode; Kauserud, Håvard & Berntsen, Terje Koren [Show all 9 contributors for this article] (2020). The double punch: ozone and climate stresses on vegetation.
    • Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Falk, Stefanie; Eriksen, Aud Berglen; Kapperud, Åshild Fandango; Kauserud, Håvard & Stordal, Frode [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2020). Responses to experimental ozone exposure in some native plant species from Northern Scandinavia.
    • Falk, Stefanie; Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Stordal, Frode; Eriksen, Aud Else Berglen & Berntsen, Terje Koren (2020). Surface Ozone in Northern Scandinavia and Implications on Local Vegetation - A Case Study.
    • Geange, Sonya Rita; Arnold, Pieter; Catling, Alexandra; Coast, Onoroide; Cook, Alicia & Gowland, Kelli [Show all 12 contributors for this article] (2020). Plant thermal tolerance: a global synthesis for future research.
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. (2020). Disentangling land use-induced from climate-induced vegetation changes in the northern boreal and Arctic regions of Norway.
    • Bryn, Anders; Hessen, Dag Olav & Stordal, Frode (2020). Før det bikker over. Klassekampen. ISSN 0805-3839. p. 18–19.
    • Yilmaz, Yeliz; Tallaksen, Lena M. & Stordal, Frode (2020). Hydroclimatological evaluation of CLM5 simulations using multiple data sources for land-atmosphere interaction studies over Scandinavia.
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. (2020). Klimaendringer i Nordområdene.
    • Tømmervik, Hans & Eklundh, Lars (2020). Lecture series on terrestrial vegetation applications (Prof. Lars Eklundh and Dr. Hans Tømmervik).
    • Lieungh, Eva; Bryn, Anders; Stordal, Frode; Bjerke, Jarle W.; Tonjer, Lea-Rebekka & Bright, Ryan M. (2020). Norske fjell gror igjen i et varmere klima. Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.). ISSN 0804-3116. p. 20–21.
    • Vollsnes, Ane Victoria (2020). Plant hydraulic stress studied in experiments.
    • Bryn, Anders; Dalen, Thea Grobstok; Finne, Eirik Aasmo; Heiberg, Hanne; Nilsen, Irene Brox & Parmentier, Frans-Jan W. [Show all 22 contributors for this article] (2020). Natur i endring - en vandreutstilling.
    • Gya, Ragnhild (2020). Indirect effects of climate change on alpine plant communities (the INCLINE project).
    • Lee, Hanna (2020). Skogens påvirkning på klima (blogg.forskning.no - Søkelys på skogplantning [Internet]).
    • Lee, Hanna (2020). Jordsmonnets hemmelighet (blogg.forskning.no - Søkelys på skogplantning [Internet]).
    • Lee, Hanna (2020). Et nytt syn på skogplanting (blogg.forskning.no - Søkelys på skogplantning [Internet]).
    • Frost, G.V.; Bhatt, U.S.; Epstein, H.E.; Myers-Smith, I.; Phoenix, G.K. & Berner, L.T. [Show all 15 contributors for this article] (2020). Tundra greenness. In Thoman, Richard L.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline & Druckenmiller, Matthew L. (Ed.), Arctic Report Card 2020. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. 68–78. doi: 10.25923/46rm-0w23.
    • Finne, Eirik Aasmo (2020). Variation in albedo and other vegetation traits along gradients of reindeer grazing intensity in Arctic, alpine and boreal regions.
    • Finne, Eirik Aasmo (2020). Variation in albedo along gradients of reindeer grazing intensity in Arctic, alpine and boreal regions.
    • Vollsnes, Ane Victoria & Vatne, Astrid (2020). Field work at Iškoras and input to transpiration modelling.
    • Narayanappa, Devaraju (2020). Vegetation atmosphere interactions in earth system models.
    • Erlandsson, Rasmus (2020). Google Earth Engine for vegetation mapping and monitoring.
    • Pirk, Norbert; Ramtvedt, Eirik Næsset; Decker, Sven; Cassiani, Massimo; Burkhart, John & Stordal, Frode [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2019). Causes of surface energy imbalances of eddy covariance measurements in mountainous terrain.
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. (2019). Improved process understanding from observations and experiments.
    • Bryn, Anders; Volden, Inger Kristine; Horvath, Peter; Torma, Michal & Stordal, Frode (2019). Hvor raskt stiger tre- og skoggrensene i Norge? Folkeforskning i praksis. .
    • Vollsnes, Ane Victoria; Stordal, Frode & Bhattacharjee, puja (2019). Ozone pollution from Asia isn't well understood, but may be damaging Arctic plants. [Internet]. www.firstpost.com/tech/science.
    • Byre, Hanne Eline; Falk, Stefanie; Stordal, Frode & Berntsen, Terje Koren (2019). An Investigation of Source Regions Contributing to the Deposition of Reactive Nitrogen in Arctic and Boreal Areas.
    • Falk, Stefanie; Stordal, Frode & Vollsnes, Ane Victoria (2019). Ozon und seine Auswirkungen auf die Vegetation in Nordskandinavien.
    • Vandvik, Vigdis (2019). A burning issue: Understanding the ecological and evolutionary imprints of humans on biodiversity climate on coastal heathlands.
    • Yilmaz, Yeliz; Tallaksen, Lena M. & Stordal, Frode (2019). Assessment of the water and energy balance simulations of CTSM using satellite-based observations over Scandinavia.
    • Stordal, Frode (2019). Improved representation of ecosystem-climate interactions in NorESM.
    • Vogt, Yngve (2019). Kunstig intelligens bedrer klimamodellene. Titan.uio.no.
    • Drægebø, Reidun; Vandvik, Vigdis; Martinsen, Katrine; Bjerck, Adam & Dale, Hanna Fjeldheim (2019). Ni enkle råd for hvordan du kan spise mer klimavennlig. [Newspaper]. Bergens Tidende.
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. (2019). Hvordan påvirker klimaendringene naturen i Norge?
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. (2019). EMERALDs forskning på reindrift.
    • Bjerke, Jarle W. (2019). Snow-ecosystem interactions.

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    Published May 31, 2019 3:37 PM - Last modified Sep. 21, 2021 3:14 PM